Interested in keeping up with the VitisGen2 project? Visit the webpage at vitisgen2.org or on twitter @vitisgen
The recording from the December 10th webinar, "Revisit and Improve Your Vineyard Spray Program" is now online. To watch the recording of this webinar, click on the video below.
To watch it in higher resolution, click on the video, then click on the video title to open it in Youtube.
An effective pest management program leads to higher yields, higher quality fruit, and more satisfied winemakers. Constructing a program that effectively and sustainably targets the diseases and insects in the vineyard is an important skill for all grape growers regardless of experience level or vineyard size.
In the webinar, we discussed how to decide which products to spray based on the pest species in your vineyard, when to spray them, and how to use a variety of resources to develop or improve a current spray program. Speaker: Annie Klodd, UMN Extension.
We will be hosting a series of webinars for cold climate grape growers during the winter months. The first two webinars in this series are taking place in December, and will cover pest management and spray programs.
- Tuesday, Dec. 10, from 12:00-12:30pm: Revisit and Improve Your Vineyard Spray Program
- Tuesday, Dec. 17, from 12:00-12:30pm: Developing Your Vineyard Weed Management Plan
Having a spray program that effectively and sustainably targets the diseases, weeds, and insects present in the vineyard, is an important skill for all grape growers regardless of experience level or vineyard size. An effective pest management program leads to higher yields, higher quality fruit, and more satisfied winemakers.
Even seasoned grape growers should be re-evaluating their spray program every year and making improvements to it. December is a great time to do that, so that you can order products for 2020 before the spring rush.
We will discuss how to decide which products to spray based on the pest species in your vineyard, when to spray them, and how to use a variety of resources to develop or improve a current spray program.
Registration is free, but we need you to register so that we can send you the login information.
This webinar series is funded by a grant by the North Central Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program.
Did you miss the webinar on Wednesday about grape crop insurance? That's ok - we recorded it, and you can listen to it here.
Did you know? The USDA has implemented their Grape Crop Insurance Program into five Minnesota counties beginning in 2020, but you can get insurance for your vineyard even if you live outside of these 5 counties. Learn more about what this means for grape growers in Minnesota and surrounding states.
To listen to the recording from the Oct. 23 webinar: click here to watch on Youtube, or watch below:
*Please note: The deadline to purchase your 2020 Grape policy is November 20, 2019, so please watch the webinar recording and learn about the program before it’s too late!
Presenter: Craig Christianson, Risk Management Specialist, USDA
• Background on the Risk Management Agency and the USDA Grape Program
• Written Agreements - How to obtain insurance through a written agreement if your vineyard is not located in one of the five Minnesota counties with the grape program.
• Grape Program in Minnesota
Authors: Annie Klodd and Anne Sawyer, University of Minnesota Extension
- Minimize the amount of nitrogen applied in the fall; save it for the spring.
- Granular fertilizer is best applied as a broadcast directed to the vine rows
- If possible, avoid fertilizer application to the grassy aisles unless groundcover renovation is the intent
- Fertilizer application rates should be calculated based on soil and foliar tests. Use test reports from the current year or recent years.
During the growing season, grapevines allocate significant amounts of sugars and nutrients to the fruit, which is then removed from the vineyard when the fruit is harvested. If the soils are limited in nutrients like phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N) and magnesium (Mg), adding these nutrients back into the soil periodically is important to the continued productivity of the vineyard. Fertilizer amounts (rates) applied should be calculated based on soil and foliar test results, rather than applying an arbitrary rate.
Reasons to Consider Post-Harvest Fertilization
Other vineyard tasks are done for the year, and it is too early to begin dormant pruning. Therefore, growers likely have more spare time now than they do in the spring.
In terms of nutrients, grapes are in one of their most depleted states immediately following harvest, and in the early spring.
It is logistically easier to apply fertilizer in the fall when the ground is dry but not yet frozen, compared to the early spring when the vineyard may be impassable due to melting snow.
While applying fertilizer in the fall may not necessarily decrease the chance of vine winter injury, it will help the vines get off to a healthy start in the spring.
How to Apply Fall Fertilizers
As stated before, fertilizer rates should be determined based on soil tests, as well as foliar (petiole) tests if possible. Applying fertilizers without considering test data can cause growers to waste money and fuel on excess inputs, and can even cause soil nutrient toxicities, in which nutrient levels are so high that they negatively impact plant growth. Excess fertilizers are also tough on the environment.
The most effective and efficient method of vineyard fertilization is to apply it as a targeted broadcast directly underneath the vine rows. While many fertilizer spreaders broadcast the product over the whole area, it is generally unnecessary to apply fertilizer to the row middles (grassy strips) unless you specifically intend to improve the growth of the grass. Most grapevine roots grow within the vine rows (also called “herbicide strips”) rather than under the grass, so fertilizer applied to the grass has little impact on the grapevines.
Broadcast fertilizer spreaders vs. targeted broadcast spreaders
As mentioned above, most common fertilizer spreaders used in agriculture will broadcast the fertilizer in a certain radius behind the machine, which will of course apply the product to both the grass and vine rows. While this is not necessarily harmful, it is less efficient and more costly than using a targeted spreader (as explained above).
Specialized vineyard or orchard fertilizer spreaders can be purchased that are designed to direct the fertilizer under the vine rows.
General use broadcast spreaders can also be retrofitted to target vine rows, for those who do not wish to purchase a vineyard-specific spreader. This can be done by attaching a V-shaped bar on the back, or otherwise engineering a way to redirect the fertilizer at an angle so that it only hits the ground beneath the vines. One grower I spoke to recommended making and attaching a wooden V onto the back of a plastic spreader (such as those from Fleet Farm). He uses wood because he has found that frequent use can cause metal spreaders to rust. Of course, the methods of retrofitting a spreader will depend on the spreader you have and what tools are available to you.
Why not apply fall nitrogen?
For cold climate grapes, it is very important to eliminate or minimize nitrogen applications in the fall, especially while the leaves are still on the vines.
1) Nitrogen application in the fall can significantly increase the vines’ chances of severe winter injury.
After harvest, grapevines need to begin shutting down (senescing) in preparation for the winter. They stop growing, harden off green tissue, and move their energy and nutrients from the canopy down to the roots for winter storage. If nitrogen is applied in the fall, it encourages the vines to form new leaves, which is not a good thing. This interrupts the senescence process, which makes them unprepared for winter and therefore more vulnerable to winter injury.
2) Nitrogen applied in the fall may vanish before the spring
Nitrogen is highly mobile in the soil, meaning that it can be easily lost to the environment with water movement through the soil. Nitrogen can also be lost through volatilization (gaseous loss to the atmosphere). When water carries nitrogen down below the root zone (where the roots grow), the plant can no longer reach it and the N is lost to groundwater. This process is called “leaching.” If nitrogen is applied in the fall, it’s more likely to be lost to the environment than to be taken up by the plant. However, during the active growth season in the spring, the roots are actively growing and nutrients are in high demand by the plants. Therefore, fall-applied nitrogen is likely to be gone before the 2020 growing season starts.
What about other nutrients, like P and K?
Unlike N, P and K are immobile in the soil and are less likely to be lost to the environment with fall applications. Therefore, applying P and K in the fall will give vines a ready source of nutrients in the spring.
Some P and K fertilizers are available that do not contain N; read more at this link. However, many other fertilizers (like "N-P-K") and micronutrient sources contain some level of nitrogen. Therefore, it may be challenging to completely avoid fall nitrogen application if other nutrients are also being applied, particularly if using organic fertilizers. If this is the case, select a fertilizer product with very low N concentrations relative to the P and K concentrations, such as a 10-20-20 or 5-10-10 and wait until the leaves have fallen off the vines before applying it.
About the authors: Annie Klodd and Anne Sawyer are University of Minnesota Extension Educators for fruit and vegetable crops. Annie’s position focuses on assisting fruit farmers with topics involving fruit crop production, including grapes. Anne holds a PhD in soil science from UMN, and her position focuses on assisting farmers with soil health and farm food safety topics.
Minnesota Grape Growers Association
Cold Climate Conference
Rochester, MN February 20-22, 2020
Sensory Analysis of Itasca Wines
preliminary findings of industry sensory evaluation of Itasca winemaking practices
September 11, 2019
Presented by Matthew Clark and Andrew Horton
‘Itasca’ is a new wine grape variety developed at the University of Minnesota and released in 2017. This grape variety demonstrates vineyard sustainability traits like cold hardiness, powdery mildew resistance, and low incidence of foliar phylloxera. Furthermore, the juice of the wine is about 30% lower in total acidity than its parent ‘Frontenac Gris’, making it suitable for dry wine production or for use in blending. The novelty of this variety means that few winemakers have had an opportunity to trial different winemaking practices. In 2017 and 2018 we made experimental ‘Itasca’ wines in order to provide some initial insight to winemakers who may be making ‘Itasca’ wines for the first time. We conducted 2 different experiments, and then conducted sensory analysis of the wines during the Cold Climate Conference in 2018 and 2019. Here we describe the preliminary results of this research.
Join in celebrating the fall grape harvest with an open house hosted by the University of Minnesota Grape Breeding and Enology project.
This annual event is a great time to meet other grape growers and enthusiasts. You will get to taste about 50 different grape varieties and learn about research being conducted on enology, viticulture, and grape genetics.
The open house will be from 10 am - noon on Saturday, September 14, 2019 at the Horticultural Research Center, 600 Arboretum Blvd., Chaska, MN 55331.
*note this is one week later than normal
The 2019 ICCWC Winners are announced.
Minnesota Governor's Cup
Blue La Crescent (2017) The Winery Sovereign Estate, Waconia Minnesota
Winery of the Year
Dancing Dragonfly Winery, Saint Croix Falls, WI
Best of Show White Wine
St. Pepin (2017) Parallel 44 Vineyard and Winery, Kewaunee, WI
Best of Show Rosé Wine
You Betcha Blush (2018) Carols Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN
Best of Show Red Wine
Marquette (2018) Vintage Escapes Winery, Kilkenny, MN
Best of Show Speciality/Fortified Wine
Lindy (2017) Dancing Dragonfly Winery, Saint Croix Falls, WI
Many thanks to the sponsors! You can find the list here.
August 15, 2019
The MGGA in partnership with the University of Minnesota is
happy to announce the 11th Annual International Cold Climate Wine
Competition. As the only competition dedicated to cold climate grape
varietals, registration will be open to any commercial winemaker
producing wine using cold-hardy grape varieties (as defined in the rules)
REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN!
Registration closes August 2, 2019 at 11:00 p.m. CDT.
Early Bird discount ends midnight July 10, 2019.
Delivery of wines no later than August 9, 2019, at 4:30 p.m. CDT.
a. Entered wines must be postmarked or delivered in-person
no later than August 9, 2019 at 4:30 p.m. CDT, with registration
$55 per entry.
Early Bird discount is $15 per bottle or $40 per entry (if registered
by midnight July 10, 2019).
Fees are non-refundable and required for each wine entered in
Registration is now open for the 9th Annual International Cold Climate Wine competition. Click on the logo to learn more.
Winter is Minnesota can be one of the most challenging times for the grape plants. It's the main reason V. vinifera varieties aren't grown here. Learn a little bit about whats going on in the vineyard in winter.
Wine making is a rewarding career, but is not free from headaches. A wine maker's nightmare is the re-fermentation of sweet wines and the instability of some wines. This blog entry addresses the topic and offers some strategies to avoid and mitigate a potential devastating re-ferment.
Are you curious if your wine is finished with malolactic fermenation? Here is a quick reminder on how to test with paper chromatography.
ALERT: September 27, 2016. Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in Grapes: A short memorandom on SWD in Minnesota and associated volatile acidity. Read more here.
Fall vineyard managment should focus on managing insects, vertebrate pests, rots, and diseases that will impact the vines in the next growing season. Making quality wines requires disease intervention and sorting, as infected fruit will impact wine quality. Read more here.
“From Vine to Glass: Understanding the Flavors and Aromas of Cold-Hardy Grapes and Wine”
Tuesday, May 17th*, 2016
12:00 Noon Eastern (11:00 am Central)
7:00 pm Eastern (6:00 pm Central)
*Please note this is a date change from the original date of May 10th.
Join Anne Fennell of South Dakota State University, Adrian Hegeman of the University of Minnesota and Somchai Rice of Iowa State University as they discuss their research conducted on Marquette and Frontenac as part of the Northern Grapes Project.
Friday April 29, 2016
This Saturday April 16, 2016
The University of Minnesota releases its news wine varieity 'Itasca' on April 4, 2016
Experimenting with different grafting techniques including grafting Ampelopsis with a hybrid rootstock.
Early bud chop counts on cold-hardy cultivars at the HRC