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Free Workshop Series: Managing and Trouble-Shooting Young Grapevines

 

 

 

 

Author: Aimee Foster. A warm gentle breeze cSovereign Estate's vineyard overlooking a lakearries the chatter and laughter of happy wine-sipping visitors and cools us off in the miraculous 80 degree heat. We are sitting under the beautiful pavilion at Sovereign Estate Wine, a vineyard and winery in Waconia, Minnesota, where new and experienced Minnesota grape growers from near and far are gathered to learn about managing and trouble-shooting young grapevines. This is the second workshop and tour in a free series put on by the grape and enology team at the University of Minnesota.

Matt Clark talking to a crowd at a field day on May 30, 2019

Photo: Dr. Matt Clark, PI of the grape and enology team at UMN, introducing us to the workshop. Photo: Aimee Foster

After an introduction by Dr. Matt Clark, we walk across the lawn to visit some older Marquette vines. This picturesque block slopes gently downhill towards Lake Waconia where jet skis rip across the open water, soaking in the warm sunshine. Sheep graze the weeds in the next block over - nature’s herbicide. Here we listen to Isaac Savaryn, the vineyard manager at Sovereign Estate, talk about his pruning methods. We also discuss how bud break and shoot growth varies from region to region in Minnesota.

Next, we load up a caravan and drive to the next vineyard block. This is a newer site, planted in 2018. Annie Klodd, UMN Extension Educator, demonstrates how to shoot thin a second year vine that has been winter injured. She also demonstrates how to train two trunks on second year vines and goes into detail about the importance of training two (or more) trunks, especially in a cold climate such as Minnesota. We ask a lot out of our vines in the winter! We also discuss new site preparation, weed management for young vines, and soil and foliar testing.

Thinning and pruning up a young grapevine

Photo: Annie Klodd, UMN Extension Educator, demonstrating shoot thinning on second year vines. Photo credit: Laise Moreira

Once again, we load up and caravan over to yet another new planting from 2018. Sovereign Estate is now up to about 25 acres of vineyard, one of the largest in the state. Here we discuss disease management and trellising systems.

Our last stop, quite naturally, is the tasting room. Isaac shares generous pours of the winery’s Marquette, La Crescent, and Frontenac Blanc wines as we sit at round tables and share our stories.

Sovereign Estate wine in tasting glasses

Photo credit: Sovereign Estate Wine’s Instagram

Thank you to all the growers who attended this workshop and added to our lively discussions. We hope to see you again!

A huge thank you to our partner, Sovereign Estate Wine, for helping to lead and organize this particular workshop and to North Central SARE for support and funding of this project.

The UMN team is partnering with Smiley Vineyard in Cannon Falls, MN for the next workshop on Saturday, June 8. They will discuss canopy management techniques and sustainable pest control. Stay tuned for a recap in a few weeks!

Publish Date: 
Monday, June 10, 2019 - 4:00pm

Practical Tips for Managing Grape Phylloxera in Minnesota

Bill Hutchison1, Eric Burkness1, Lu Yin2 & Matt Clark3

1Dept. of Entomology, Extension IPM Program, 2Graduate Student, Dept. of Horticultural Science, & 3Dept. of Horticultural Science & UMN Extension, University of Minnesota

The foliar form of Grape Phylloxera (GP) is quite common throughout Minnesota and most eastern grape growing regions of the U.S. Although we have experienced a late spring so far this year, the first grape leaves for most hybrids have started to appear; this is a good time to begin monitoring for the “yellow crawler” stage of GP, as the crawlers hatch from their “mother” galls (including a female with several eggs, Fig. 1).

Grape Phylloxera Life Cycle

In brief, the GP life cycle is quite complex, with galls formed on both root and foliar portions of the vine. However, given the genetic background of the cold-hardy grape hybrids in the Midwest region, the primary potential for damage is the presence of foliar galls formed by GP. Much of this information is taken from a recent publication by one of our graduate students in Horticultural Science, Lu Yin (Yin et al. 2019; see full citation below).

Close up view of a grapevine leaf with phylloxera eggs and adults in it

Figure 1: Mature grape phylloxera female and eggs (indicated by red arrow) and crawler (blue arrow) on a young grape leaf (Hannah Burrack, NC State).

Following the hatch of overwintered eggs (on trunk of vine), typically in early May (though later this year), the first-generation nymphs, or “crawlers” move to the grape shoots to feed on 1st to 3rd expanding terminal leaves. The leaf forms a gall around each crawler; at this time the crawlers will form less than 5 galls/leaf.  During May-June, each crawler matures within the gall (Fig. 1) and will produce 100-300 yellow, oblong eggs.  The subsequent emergence of young 2nd generation crawlers (Fig. 1) will begin, and crawlers will move out from the “mother gall”, to establish new galls on new leaves during the summer months (Fig. 2 and 3). 

Phylloxera galls in beginning stages on a grapevine leaf

Figure 2: Fig. 2. Early pin-sized galls (open), and mature foliar galls (closed), Grape Phylloxera, MN (Lu Yin, Univ. of Minnesota).

Phylloxera galls covering a grapevine leaf

Figure 3: Mature foliar galls formed by Grape Phylloxera crawlers (E. Burkness, Univ. of Minnesota).

Scouting and Management

The crawlers that hatch from the mother eggs, are the most critical generation for timing a 1st insecticide application, early summer. These crawlers will walk up the plants to 5-6th open leaves, and generate 40-50 galls per leaf, common on susceptible varieties. Three or more generations can occur in MN depending on the year, with additional galls being formed throughout summer.

For timing, growers can use a degree-day (DD) or “heat unit” model to track the initial infestation rates of crawlers. Degree-days for GP are calculated from the bio-fix date (time at which 1st leaves unfurl) by the following: DD = Average daily temperature – 43F, and accumulate DDs each day. The 2nd generation crawler emergence period occurs at 500-800 DDs; in MN we recommend to start scouting at 450 DDs, and twice weekly when possible.

Regarding insecticidal control, the two most common options used in MN have been Danitol (pyrethroid) and Movento (systemic).  To minimize the risk of resistance, these can be alternated (via different modes of action). In most years, only one spray for GP is necessary, or a maximum of 2 sprays.

With Movento, on recent on-farm trials, we have found that one application is often sufficient. After the first spray, check again for any additional gall formation instead of assuming an automatic 2nd spray is needed. As with other crops, sprays should ideally be applied during the evening hours to minimize the risk of direct contact, and mortality to bees and pollinators. Prior to any insecticide use, the label should be reviewed carefully to follow all application safety and use requirements. For more information, review the 2019 Fruit Pest Management Guide (cited below). Finally, in recent years, for some MN vineyards, we have noticed that once GP has been controlled (1 or 2 sprays), it may take up to 2 additional years for the pest population to re-establish, at least at high levels. Bottom-line: to monitor vineyards each spring/summer to verify low or high infestations via the presence of early galls.

More Information

For more information on insecticide options for managing GP, see the 2019-2020 Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, at: https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/Hort/Documents/ID-465.pdf

For more information on the history and biology of grape Phylloxera in the U.S., click here for the open access article by Lu Yin et al. (2019), https://academic.oup.com/jipm/article/10/1/16/5490144

For additional Fruit Insect IPM updates, see: www.fruitedge.umn.edu

Publish Date: 
Monday, June 3, 2019 - 1:00pm

Herbicide Recommendations for New Grapevine Plantings

Author: Annie Klodd, Extension Educator. kloddann@umn.edu.

When planting new grapevines, a strong weed management plan is essential to growing healthy, vigorous, and productive vines. Young vines do not compete well with weeds. Dense weeds in the establishment year will dramatically stunt the growth of the vines and have long term effects like making them weaker, slower to produce a crop, and more susceptible to winter injury. 

A well-planned herbicide program allows strong weed control without disturbing the soil and tender grapevine roots. Mechanical weeders such as a weed badger around the vines can cause extreme stress on the young vines, since most grapevine roots are in the top few inches of the soil and are damaged by mechanical weeders. Mowing or weed wacking is a good weed control option for established vineyards, but still allows a high risk of root competition with young vines, especially if perennial grasses are present. Therefore, it is good practice to use an herbicide program on first-year vines unless the vineyard is organic (stay tuned for another article on recommendations on organic weed control for vineyards).

The basic steps to herbicide management in the year of planting include:

  1. Making the rows weed-free before planting, with post-emergent herbicide (and pre-emergent herbicide when appropriate)
  2. Placing grow tubes around the vines in order to spray without injuring the vines
  3. Applying a pre-emergent herbicide after planting to suppress weed germination
  4. Applying post-emergent herbicides as needed to maintain weed-free rows the entire season

Herbicides should be selected based on the weeds in the field. Apply them only to the ground with a directed or shielded sprayer to minimize drift onto the vines, and always follow label instructions.

Before planting, clear all vegetation from the rows in a 2 foot wide strip where the vines will be planted. This can be done either with post-emergent herbicides, or by tilling in strips. 

After planting, the vine rows must be kept free of weeds during the whole season. Put grow tubes on the vines after planting, in order to protect the vines from in-season herbicide sprays.

Controlling weeds before planting

Post-emergent (POST) herbicides are the most common form of weed control prior to planting. Apply the POST herbicide once the grass is actively growing (more than 4 inches of green growth). POST herbicides are not effective on dormant weeds. A pre-emergent product may sometimes be used following the POST, if timing safely allows. 

Allow a few days between POST herbicide application and vine planting, in order to avoid herbicide injury to the vines. In order to determine how much time to allocate between application and planting, check the herbicide product restrictions and re-entry intervals (REI) on the label, and in the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide. As always, the label is the law.

Selecting pre-plant POST herbicides: Often, the natural vegetation growing in the field before planting will be a mix of perennial and annual grasses, with some broadleaf weeds. In these cases, it is very important to use full rates of herbicides that have strong activity on perennial grass. Beyond that, select herbicides based on what types of weeds are in the field. 

Example 1: If a fallow field has a large amount of perennial grass and broadleaf weeds (such as pigweed and lambsquarter), use an herbicide that has good activity on both grasses and broadleaves or apply multiple herbicides to meet your needs (options below). Example 2: If the field has been in an annual grass cover crop and no broadleaf weeds are present, it is not as necessary to use a product with broadleaf effectiveness. If the field has little to no perennial grass, a product with strong activity on annual grasses can be used even if its activity on perennial grass is weak.

Post-emergent (POST) herbicides to use before planting 

Below is a selection of herbicides with strong effectiveness against grasses, and many have broadleaf effectivness as well. For more details on how to apply these products, refer to the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide and the product label.

  • Glyphosate (i.e. Roundup WeatherMax 5.5EC): Effective on a broad range of perennial and annual grass, and broadleaves. Use a high rate for perennial weeds, within the label restrictions. Can be tank mixed with labeled pre-emergent herbicides.
  • Fusilade DX 2EC (fluazifop): Effective on most annual and perennial grasses. Do not exceed 24 fl. oz. per application per acre, or 72 fl. oz. per acre per year. Allow 14 days between applications. This product is best to apply early in the season, as it has a 50 day pre-harvest interval (PHI).
  • Select Max (clethodim): Effective on most annual and perennial grasses, but no activity on broadleaves. This product can only be used on non-bearing vines, meaning those that will not be harvested within one year of application. If broadleaf weeds are present, combine Select Max with another herbicide with broadleaf activity such as Aim 2EC or Goal 2XL.
  • Scythe 4.2E (pelargonic acid): Effective on a broad range of annual grasses and broadleaves, with some activity on perennial grasses. Use a high rate for perennial grasses or winter annual weeds, and a lower rate for summer annual weeds.
  • Rely 280 (glufosinate): Effective on annual and perennial grasses and broadleaves. Use care when applying this product, making sure to direct the spray to the ground and to not spray during windy conditions; if glufosinate drifts on to the grapevine foliage it may cause significant injury. 
  • Gramoxone: Effective against annual grasses and broadleaves, but not perennial grasses. Will not kill perennial grasses, only burn the tops. This is a Restricted Use Pesticide and therefore requires the applicator to have a Private Pesticide Applicator’s License. 
  • This information is based on the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide

Applying pre-emergent (PRE) residual herbicides before planting

First, what is a pre-emergent herbicide? As opposed to post-emergent (POST) herbicides, which kill actively growing weeds, pre-emergent (PRE) herbicides are applied to bare soil to stop new weed seeds from germinating. 

Applying a PRE product before planting is an optional step, and may not be logistically possible in all years depending on weather and time constraints. When possible, the advantage of applying a PRE herbicide before planting is to prevent new weed emergence for several weeks, reducing the need for frequent POST applications later on. 

Why is a pre-plant PRE herbicide logistically difficult? First, most of the PRE herbicides for vineyards have age restrictions and cannot be applied before planting or to vines less than a year old. Some have age restrictions of several years. Prowl H2O is one of the only PRE herbicides that can be safely applied before planting vines. Additionally, most PRE herbicides must be applied to bare ground only; the ground should not have vegetative cover in the form of turf or weeds, or the product will have trouble reaching the soil where it is effective. This means the grower can only apply a PRE after they have applied the POST, and the weeds have died down completely. Because it sometimes takes days for weeds to die down after a POST, a grower may not have time to apply both a POST and PRE herbicide before planting.   

How and when to apply Prowl H2O (pendimethalin) before planting: Before applying Prowl, apply a POST herbicide to the rows to kill existing weeds. Wait until the weeds have died to the ground, and then apply Prowl. Following the range of allowable rates on the label, apply a high rate to ensure good weed control. It may be either incorporated with tillage or applied to the surface. Rain or watering is needed within 21 days in order to activate the compound. Do not allow the spray to touch nearby vines that have broken bud.

Weed management after planting

After planting, maintain weed control throughout the season in order to prevent competition with the newly established vines. This should be done with a combination of PRE and POST herbicides in the rows (two-foot strip), and mowing between the rows. A good PRE application early in the season will decrease the number of POST applications that are necessary, because fewer weeds will emerge from the soil. 

Grow tubes: In order to apply herbicides without injuring or killing the young vines, secure grow tubes around the vines and keep them there for the entire first season.

Pre-emergent herbicide application after planting

Pre-emergent herbicide options are limited for newly planted vines, but there are several products that can be applied after planting, as long as a grow tube is used to protect the vine. Many products specify that they can only be applied to dormant vines, which means they cannot be applied after bud swell. However, if the vines are protected by a grow tube, the PRE can be sprayed later in the season without damaging the buds.

The timing of PRE applications is important. The ground should be as weed-free as possible when PRE herbicides are applied, and the soil should have settled after planting and have no cracks. The chemical needs to reach the soil in order to work. Weeds growing there will intercept some of the product before it can reach the soil, decreasing the product’s effectiveness. Therefore, if many weeds are growing, apply a POST product to clear the soil before applying a PRE. 

Additionally, wait to apply a PRE until the soil has settled after planting. If cracks remain in the soil from planting, PRE application could injure the grapevine roots. In the meantime, apply a POST product to remove any early season weeds that have emerged.

PRE options for the establishment year, after planting, include: 

  • Prowl H2O (pendimethalin): Annual grasses and some broadleaves. Apply once the ground has settled post-planting and has no cracks. Needs rain within 21 days to be effective. 
  • Snapshot 2.5TG (isoxaben and trifluralin): Annual grasses and some broadleaves. Apply once the ground has settled and has no cracks. Can only be used on non-bearing vines that will not be harvested within 1 year. Rain or watering (0.5 inches) is needed within 3 days of application. Wait 60 days between applications. Rate is 100-200 lbs/acre.
  • Devrinol 2-XT (napropamide): Annual grasses and broadleaves. Apply in spring or late fall at a rate of 2 gal/acre. It can be tank mixed with a POST herbicide. 
  • Surflan 4AS (oryzalin): Annual grasses and some broadleaves. Apply alone or tank mix with glyphosate or gramoxone, depending on the weeds in the field (see POST table). It will not activate until 0.5 inches of rain has fallen. Wait 2.5 months between applications. Apply 2-6 qts. In 20-40 gallons of water, depending on weed severity, not exceeding 12 qts/year.
  • Treflan HFP 4EC (trifluralin): Annual grasses and broadleaves. Must be incorporated with tillage, which makes this option difficult in many cases. In a new planting, apply 1-4 pts/acre and incorporate within 24 hours. 60-day pre-harvest interval (PHI).
  • Trellis (isoxaben): Annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. Apply between 0.67-1.33 lbs/acre in a minimum of 10 gallons of water. As with others, apply before weeds germinate. 

Post-emergent herbicide application after planting

Post-emergent herbicide options after planting include those listed above as well as those in the below table. Additionally, the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide includes an extensive list of herbicide options along with the rates, pre-harvest intervals, re-entry intervals, and relative effectiveness of each product on grasses and broadleaf weeds. 

Use a grow tube on the vines in order to safely apply herbicide to new vines. 

The timing of POST applications is important as well. During the growing season, target weeds with POST herbicide when they are young and growing rapidly. As weeds become more mature, they are more resilient to herbicides. Many weed scientists recommend the “Pop can method” for determining the height at which weeds should be sprayed. For many broadleaf weeds, the rule of thumb is if the weed is taller than a pop can, it may be too tall and strong to be completely killed by herbicides when applied at legal rates. While this is a broad generalization, it seems to hold true for a number of broadleaf species.

POST herbicide options for grapes (taken from the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide, pages 153-154)

Grape herbicide table

Publish Date: 
Tuesday, April 23, 2019 - 11:00am

Early Season Control of Phomopsis on Grapes

Author: Annie Klodd, Extension Educator

Phomopsis is a prevalent grape disease in Minnesota, and should be sprayed for as part of your early season spray program between bud break and pre-bloom stages. If uncontrolled, it causes brown and black lesions on the canes, black/yellow spots on the leaves, and rot on the ripe berries that can lead to weaker plants and yield loss. Below are some key tips for managing phomopsis:

Phomopsis lesions on a grapevine cane

1) Your timing is important: Spray for phomopsis between bud break and bloom after wet weather, typically 1-3 times. Phomopsis disease spores overwinter on last year's canes and woody tissue. In the spring once conditions are right, the spores are released and spread to new shoots and leaves via rain drops. Infection requires at least 6 hours of leaf wetness, and ideal temperatures are between 60-68 degrees. Since these weather conditions are common in the spring, it is usually necessary to spray at least once.

2) Once a shoot is infected, symptoms do not appear immediately. Symptoms of the infection become visible on the leaves a few days after the infection, and on the canes 3-4 weeks after infection. The fungus will lay dormant on the berries until veraison, so symptoms will not be visible until after veraison. In other words, symptoms you see during harvest probably happened during bloom and needed to be treated weeks earlier. By the time the fruit is beginning to rot, it is too late to treat effectively.

3) The following products have effectiveness on phomopsis: Captan (very effective), Mancozeb (very effective), Ziram (moderate), and Pristine (moderate). Apply one or more of those products at bud break, before the shoots are 4 inches, especially if the conditions are right for the fungi to spread (see #1). Do another application when the shoots are between 4-10 inches, and again pre-bloom if needed (weather-depending). Mancozeb, Ziram, and Pristine also control black rot.

  • Mancozeb: REI 24h, PHI 66 days. High effectiveness on Phomopsis, anthracnose, black rot, and downy mildew
  • Captan: REI 72h, PHI 0 days. High effectiveness on Phomopsis and downy mildew. Moderate effectiveness on anthracnose.
  • Ziram: REI 48h, PHI 10 days. High effectiveness on black rot. Moderate effectiveness on phomopsis, anthracnose, and downy mildew.
  • Pristine: REI 12h*, PHI 14 days. High effectiveness on anthracnose, black rot, downy mildew, and powdery mildew. Moderate effectiveness on phomopsis and botrytis bunch rot.

*Pristine's REI becomes 5 days if you are doing shoot positioning.

4) As much as possible, determine the timing of your sprays based on when weather conditions are right for phomopsis infection. If your work schedule is flexible, do not rely on a "calendar spray" for diseases or insects in general. It is much more effective to spray based on plant growth stage, weather, scouting, and knowing how much infection you have had in past years. If weather has been dry and warm since your last spray, the phomopsis spores are not likely active. If weather has been cool and wet, spraying becomes more necessary because spores have likely spread.

5) Prune out canes that have black lesions on them (See photo above, and in Ohio Sate page below) and remove or destroy them.

Resources:

Publish Date: 
Monday, April 8, 2019 - 9:00pm

Tips for Reducing Grapevine Trunk Disease During Pruning

Many growers have been inquiring about what they can do during pruning to manage grapevine trunk disease (GTD). Below are a few general tips to reducing the risk or prevalence of grapevine trunk disease. They can be adapted to the individual vineyard based on what is feasible within your management system.
Grapevine wood with trunk disease staining
1) Remove and replace any cordons that are not productive. If the cordon is as thick as the trunk, on a mature vine, and it has been declining in productivity, it is time for it to go; it will only continue to decline. Furthermore, if more than 1/2 of the length of the cordon is not producing spurs, it can be replaced. Lack of productivity on a cordon can be a sign of either trunk disease or winter injury, or both. But either way, the cordon is not as productive as it could be and may be harboring disease.
 
To replace a cordon, tie down a healthy replacement cane over it and remove the old one either this year or next year, depending on its level of die-back. For instance, if it is mostly not producing, there is no need to keep it; cut it out this year. However if you wish to harvest some fruit off of it this year, keep it and remove it next year. This method will help remove a good amount of diseased wood if it is present, and will make sure disease does not spread from the cordon to the trunk.
 
2) Remove pruning cuttings from the field, rather than leaving them on the vineyard floor. This is especially if the cuttings have visible disease symptoms on them, like discolored interior wood or black lesions. This can, and is, done successfully in Minnesota. It can be done with a bobcat, or with a trailer behind a 4-wheeler. Once removed, cuttings can be burned in a pile.
 
3) When cutting down a trunk or a cordon that has died, dab that wound with latex paint, and/or spot spray it with a fungicide that has some surface-level efficacy on trunk disease spores such as Topsin or Rally. This can be done with a handheld or backpack sprayer. Then, come back again a few days later and dab the wound with latex paint to seal it up from incoming spores. This is only effective on the surface of the wound - it will not effect fungal infection that is already established in the wood. This tip is based on research in warmer areas, and has not yet been researched in our Minnesota climate. 
 
4) Next year, consider pruning earlier in the season (Feb-March), rather than starting in late March or April. This is easier said that done in years when there are 2.5 feet of snow on the ground, like this year. But there is good, consistent data out of several areas of the US showing that if temperatures remain below freezing for several weeks after pruning, it drastically reduces the risk of GTD to infect the pruning wounds. This is because the wounds have an opportunity to dry and harden before the fungal spores become active in the spring, therefore they cannot infect the dried up wounds.
 
5) Check your cordons for interior disease symptoms when pruning, and save those samples so that our team can analyze them for trunk disease. Grapevine trunk disease appears as brown discoloration in the wood. On green wood, it more often appears as black discoloration.
Grapevine wood with trunk disease
I know of at least two Minnesota growers who plan to try spraying their entire vineyard with Rally or Topsin to control GTD, based on recommendations from warmer wine regions. If you do this, be aware that you are doing it experimentally; we do not yet know the best timing or effectiveness of this treatment in Minnesota, when there is often a long time period between when we prune and when we can spray. The recommendations from other regions say to spray immediately after pruning if you are pruning when the spores are active (above 35 degrees consistently), and then repeat the spray one or two times during pruning and bud break. If the ground is saturated or snow-covered and you cannot get the tractor into the field, you may miss this critical time period. As part of our 2019-2021 research into grapevine trunk disease, we hope to determine the best time frames for spraying based on when the spores become active in Minnesota.
 
For questions about grapevine trunk disease in Minnesota, contact Annie Klodd at kloddann@umn.edu
Publish Date: 
Tuesday, April 2, 2019 - 12:45pm

Tracking Down the Causes of Bunch Stem Necrosis

Annie Klodd – UMN Extension Educator

Shriveled grape cluster on the vineLate bunch stem necrosis (LBSN) is a complex physiological disorder of grapevines, where the bunch stems (rachises) shrivel during ripening, followed closely by berry shrivel. This sudden change is frustrating for growers, when seemingly healthy vines produce unusable clusters. LBSN affects vineyards worldwide, but may be caused by a number of environmental stresses. This means that developing treatment recommendations is a complex, long-term task that may vary by vineyard.

The University of Minnesota viticulture team is working to understand why LBSN is happening on Minnesota vineyards so that we can provide appropriate treatment recommendations.

Two important points to understanding bunch stem necrosis:

1) LBSN is not a disease, so fungicides are not effective against it. LBSN should not be confused with diseases that cause mummies, such as black rot and bunch rot.

2) LBSN is a physiological problem that happens in response to some stress in the environment. Stress causes the plant’s xylem (the “veins” of the plant that transports water and nutrients) to shut down in the cluster during ripening. With a dead xylem, water cannot be transported to the rest of the cluster. So the bunch stems dry, and then the berries dry up.

A Widespread Problem

I wrote an article about LBSN in February in the UMN Grape Breeding and Enology Blog. Between then and now, at least 22 vineyards in Minnesota have reported LBSN symptoms to me, as well as growers in Wisconsin, Ohio, California, Virginia, Vermont, and Nova Scotia. These reports included crop losses between 5-90%. This widespread response highlights the problematic nature of the disorder and the need to determine causes and treatments for it.

Searching for the Causes of Bunch Stem Necrosis  

The causes of LBSN are not well understood globally. Previous research has associated several different environmental stresses with LBSN, so we are working to determine what is causing the problem in Minnesota. Potential stresses include cool, wet weather after veraison; excessive pruning; unhealthy vines; and soil nutrient imbalances.A shriveled grape cluster

It is more likely that LBSN in Minnesota is associated with wet, cool conditions and the overall health of the grapevines, rather than soil nutrient availability. This hypothesis is based on preliminary research this season, previous studies in other regions, and state-wide weather data from 2016-2018.

Cool, Wet Fall: Cooler-than-average temperatures and heavy rainfall during ripening have been associated with LBSN in previous studies in Europe and Australia. Weather data from 2016-17 in Minnesota do show relatively wet, cool weather during August and September in many parts of the state, when LBSN was reported to be most severe. LBSN in our area may be worse during seasons when weather is cool and wet following veraison. However, further research is necessary to examine this more thoroughly.

Faster ripening may potentially reduce the impact of LBSN, by allowing the fruit to mature before symptoms set in. In at least one vineyard I visited this season, fruit that was mature and ready for harvest prior to Sept. 18 was essentially able to “outpace” the peak development of LBSN. When temperatures are cooler than average during veraison and ripening, clusters tend to ripen less quickly. Practices to help accelerate ripening, such as shoot thinning, cluster thinning, and increasing sunlight exposure to the fruiting zone, can all be used to help accelerate ripening.  Future research should explore how these canopy management practices may help minimize LBSN.

Site Selection: Excess soil moisture has been associated to LBSN in previous studies. Sites with better water drainage are less likely to stay wet following heavy rains. Heavy soils with high clay content, and flat or low-lying sites are at higher risk of retaining excess soil moisture.

Nutrients: A handful of studies in other regions linked LBSN to nutrient deficiencies like Mg, Ca, and N. However, this does not appear to be the case in Minnesota. My preliminary research from this season yielded no evidence of nutrient deficiencies in any of the vineyards I studied that reported LBSN. In fact, we found that all four vineyards had plenty of these soil nutrients. Fertilizer applications are not recommended unless soil tests reveal deficiencies. Unneeded fertilization can cause run-off and excessive vine canopy.

An Interesting Observation: Aerial Roots

While visiting vineyards exhibiting LBSN symptoms in mid-September, I began noticing that almost all affected vines also had aerial roots. Aerial roots (roots forming on the cordons) can happen in response to winter injury, late frost damage, or excessively wet, humid conditions. While they do not negatively affect the plant, they do serve as a useful clue that the vine is experiencing these conditions.

Publish Date: 
Friday, October 26, 2018 - 5:45pm

Free Webinar: 2018 Grape Grower Season Re-Cap, Nov. 15

Vineyard in fall

Click here to watch the recording of the webinar from Nov. 15: Grape Grower Season Re-Cap Webinar

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How did the 2018 season go for grape growers in the upper Midwest? What challenges did we tackle, what went well, and what should growers think about for next year? This one-hour webinar will cover these topics and leave plenty of time for questions and comments. Hosted by the University of Minnesota Extension and U of MN Grape Breeding and Enology, with collaboration from the Southern MN Wine Growers Alliance and the MN Grape Growers Association.

If you are new to webinars: A webinar is just like watching someone give a seminar, but online instead of in-person. That way, you can participate from anywhere in the world without leaving the house. You will hear us talk while also seeing a powerpoint presentation. There is also a text box where you can submit questions.

When: Thursday, November 15 at 6:00pm

Where: Your computer, anywhere you get internet. If you don't have internet, you can still listen in by phone but won't be able to see the powerpoint slides.

How To Participate: It's easy! Just click “Join WebEx meeting” below, on Nov. 15 by 6:00pm, and it will take you to the webinar. 

Join WebEx meeting (click here on Nov. 15 by 6pm to join the webinar)

Meeting number: 819 673 521

Meeting password: R5Y4QxY3

If you do not have internet, join by phone:

+1 210 606 9466 US Toll

+1 866 282 7366 US Toll Free

Access code: 819 673 521

Add this meeting to your calendar. (Cannot add from mobile devices.)

Publish Date: 
Thursday, October 25, 2018 - 9:30pm

Spotted Wing gDrosophila (SWD) Alert for Wine Grapes

Recent rains have caused berry splitting for grape growers around Minnesota, leading to spotted wing Drosophila infestations. Insecticide applications are warranted to prevent damaging affects on wine quality, and must be done at least one day prior to harvest.

Bill Hutchison, Dominique Ebbenga, and Matt Clark
UMN Entomology, UMN MN Extension IPM Program, UMN Horticulture

With the wine grape harvest upon us, and a recent increase in Spotted Wing Drosophilla (SWD) counts, via our weekly trapping network, growers should be aware of the potential contamination of juice or wine, if berries are exposed to SWD just prior to harvest.  The concern with late-season SWD in grapes is two-fold, including a) the potential for direct contamination of fruit/juice via egg-lay and larval infestations, and b) the surface exposure of adults and/or larvae contributing to increased levels of volatile acidity (VA) at either the juice stage or during fermentation --- which is responsible for a vinegar taint to the wine. 

Regarding the risk of direct berry infestation, our 2017 research, via a graduate student (Dominique Ebbenga), we found that with intact (non-damaged) berries, the vast majority of MN grown varieties were resistant to egg-lay. Among 34 varieties tested, only 2 commercial varieties (Swenson red, Vanessa) experienced egg-lay and larval infections. However, the complication this year with recent heavy rainfall, is that excess splitting is underway with several varieties, and splitting allows SWD to easily lay eggs and generate larval infestations.

Regarding concerns with VA, Ebbenga's research found statistically significant, and higher levels of VA in Frontenac, Marquette and La Crescent juice, following exposure to 20 SWD adults (vs zero adults) for 10-14 days prior to harvest. For more information on VA, and how this contributes to a vinegar taint, see the enclosed fact sheet from Penn State. This study is being repeated this year, and will be extended to assess VA levels in wine as well. 

In brief, in preparation for this year's harvest, if growers are in an area where trap catches, or adult numbers are high, or have their own traps to confirm, and one or more varieties are splitting, an insecticide application prior to harvest is warranted. Unfortunately, there are few options available with a short pre-harvest interval (PHI). Mustang Maxx is the primary pyrethroid product to consider, with a 1-day PHI and 12 hr re-entry interval; this is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), and the label should be reviewed. In other words, growers must wait at least one day after applying Mustang Maxx before harvesting.

For recent SWD counts at selected TC-metro locations, see: https://www.fruitedge.umn.edu/swdtrap

Click here for additional SWD management information and labelled insecticides via our UMN guide.

Publish Date: 
Monday, September 10, 2018 - 3:45pm

2018 Open House 9/8/2018

Join in celebrating the fall grape harvest with an open house hosted by the University of Minnesota Grape Breeding and Enology project.  

This annual event is a great time to meet other grape growers and enthusiasts. You get to taste about 50 different grape varieties and learn about research being conducted on enology, viticulture, and grape genetics.

This year will also feature Dr. Bob Guthrie, a world expert on Kiwi (Actinidia). Dr. Guthrie will provide attendees an opportunity to taste kiwi berries and talk about research related to this unique cold-hardy crop.

The open house will be from 10 am - noon on Saturday, September 8, 2018 at the Horticultural Research Center, 600 Arboretum Blvd., Chaska, MN 55318.  Professor Carl Rosen discusses plant nutrition in cold hardy grapes

Publish Date: 
Tuesday, September 4, 2018 - 4:15pm

2018 ICCWC 10th Anniversary Winners Announced

10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition

For Immediate Release: 8/18/2018

Press Contact: Matt Clark clark776@umn.edu or 612-626-5142

Trophy and Medal Winners for the 10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition

Twenty-four judges from around the nation met today at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in Chaska to judge cold-climate wines. This is the only competition of its kind that focuses on wines made with cold hardy grapes, fruit, or mead. The competition seeks to honor and promote wines of exceptional quality produced in these unique cold-climate regions. The competition is a partnership between the University of Minnesota Grape Breeding and Enology Project and the Minnesota Grape Growers Association. Many wonderful industry sponsors also support the event. 

Over 340 wines were entered from 66 wineries. These wineries were from 16 states and 2 Canadian provinces, a true international competition.

Six trophies are awarded to the top wines and wineries in the competition, in addition to medallions. The top awards include Best-of-Show from each competition category, Winery of the Year, and the prestigious Minnesota Governor’s Cup. Winery of the year is awarded based on a weighted medal count. The Minnesota Governor’s Cup is chosen from gold and double gold award-wining wines that are produced in Minnesota. The selection is made from the entire 24 judge panel. This year’s judging panel included sommeliers, wine consultants, wine importers, wine makers, enologists, biochemists, and wine writers.

Trophies

Minnesota Governor’s Cup

La Crescent (2017) Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

**Awarded for the second year in a row**

Winery of the Year

Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN

 

Best of Show Rosé

White Marquette (2017) Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN

 

Best of Show White

La Crescent (2017) Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

 

Best of Show Red

“Marquessa” Reserve Marquette (2016) Chateau St. Croix, St. Croix Falls, WI

 

Best of Show Specialty

“Firelight” (2017) Lincoln Peak Vineyard, New Haven, VT

Medals

Double Gold

 

Frontenac Gris

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

La Crescent Ice Wine

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Walpole Fort. No.3

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

 

Gold (25 Medals)

White Marquette

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Reserve Frontenac

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Reserve Marquette

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Petite Colline

2017

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Marquessa

2016

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Indulgence

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Ballet

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

M

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Radiance

2017

door peninsula winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Outstanding Red Reserve

2017

Eagles Landing Winery

marquette

IA

Autumn Blush

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Rhubarb Raspberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

M Series

2016

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Aphrogrisiac

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Amelia

NV

Galena Cellars Vineyard & Winery

Galena

IL

Firelight

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Minnesota Ice Wine

2015

next chapter winery

new prague

MN

Marquette

2017

Niobrara Valley Vineyards

Nenzel

NE

Sabrevois

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

La Crescent

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Ice Wine

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Saint Croix Vineyards Port

2011

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Foch Dessert Wine

2016

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

LaCrescent

2017

Whitewater Wines

Plainview

MN

Strawberry-Rhubarb Wine

NV

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

 

Silver (85 Medals)

Brianna Edelweiss

NV

 Firehouse Wine Cellars

Rapid City

SD

Tradition

NV

 Firehouse Wine Cellars

Rapid City

SD

Marquette

2016

12 Corners Vineyards

Benton Harbor

MI

Frontenac Gris

2017

7 Vines Vineyard

DELLWOOD

MN

Brianna

2017

Backcountry Winery

Stratford

IA

Marquette

2017

Backcountry Winery

Stratford

IA

300-Russian Barrel Marquette

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Minnescato

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Petit Ami

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

2 Hearts 2 Souls

2017

Cellar 426 Winery

Ashland

NE

DewDrop Limited Edition No. 2

NV

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Frontenac Rose

2016

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Ruby Port

NV

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Pink Snowflake

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewaunee

WI

Frontenac

 

Crow River Winery

Hutchinson

MN

Charleston

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Hula

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Conga

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

White Velvet

2017

Danzinger Vineyards

ALMA

WI

F2

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

M

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Black currant honey grape wine

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Marquette

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Honey & Berries

 

Eagles Landing Winery

Marquette

IA

Marchal Foch

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Frontenac Rose

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

La Crescent

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Blueberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Rhubarb Bluberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Headwaters Classic Red

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Polygon Rose

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Eric the Red

2017

Galena Cellars Vineyard & Winery

Galena

IL

2016 Frontenac Gris

2016

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

North Branch

2016

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

Hawk Meadow La Crescent

2017

Hawk Meadow Winery

Hastings

MN

Demi Sec Rosa

2014

Illinois Sparkling Co.

Peru

IL

Frontenac Rose

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Marquette

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Ragtime White

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

What The Foch

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Mein Onkel

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Salier

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Minnesota Crisp

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Strawberry Wine

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Stark Red

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Brianna

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Frontenac Blanc

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Geez Louise

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Carls Wild Grape

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

44 Red

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Club Rouge

2017

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Marquette Rose

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Good Red

2016

Pioneer Estates Winery

Moncton

New Brunswick

Marquette

2017

Potter Settlement Artisan Winery

Tweed

Ontario

Marquette Rose

2017

Richwood Winery

Callaway

MN

Whimsy

2017

Satek Winery

Fremont

IN

Sparkling Rose

2017

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Blossom

2017

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Laketown White

NV

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Laketown Red

NV

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Petite Pearl

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Marquette Reserve

2015

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Marquette

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Frotenac Gris

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette Reserve

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Ignatius

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

none

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Brianna

2016

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

White Blossom

NV

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

Candleglow White

NV

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

Master's Cuvee`

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Four Point Oh!

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Three Oak Wine Frontenac Gris

2016

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Three Oak Wines Frontenac Rose

2017

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Frontenac Blanc

2017

Three Oak Wine

Albert Lea

MN

Marquette

2017

Tongue River Winery

Miles City

MT

La Crescent

2017

Tongue River Winery

Miles City

MT

Randall's Point Red

2017

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

Monarch Haven

2016

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Stinger Mead

NV

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Grapewinds Port

Non  Vintage

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Marquette Reserve

2016

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Cranberry Crush

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Bronze (93 Medals)

Prairie Star

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

300-Triumph

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Sunflower White

2017

Cellar 426 Winery

Ashland

NE

Marquette

2016

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

La Crescent

2017

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Lone Oak Tree Vineyard Marquette Reserve

2016

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Chateau Rouge

NV

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Marquette

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Frontenac Gris Ice Wine

2016

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewaunee

WI

Heavenly

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Frontenac

2016

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Sashay

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Marquessa

2015

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Cha Cha

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Calypso

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Cresent Moon

2016

Danzinger Vineyards

Alma

WI

Marquette

2016

Danzinger Vineyards

Alma

WI

Red Door

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Washington Island Rose

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Sparkler

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Soiree

2017

door peninsula winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Honey Grape Wine

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Pearly Duck

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Frontenac

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Aronia Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Raspberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Cassis Pomme Reserve

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

La Crescent

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Brianna

2016

Grape Mill Vineyard & Winery

East Grand Forks

MN

Huntsville Red

2016

Grape Mill Vineyard & Winery

East Grand Forks

MN

2015 Marquette

2015

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

LaCrescent

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Village Marquette

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Black Sparrow

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

LaCrescent

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Ragtime White

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Limestone

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Freizeit

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Draga

2014

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Little Iza

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Plum Crazy

2015

Montgomery Harvest Cider and Wine

Montgomery

MN

Sweet Pea

2017

Niobrara Valley Vineyards

Nenzel

NE

Blackberry Wine

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Aurora Red

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Rivertown Red

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Prairie Rose

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Lacrescent

2017

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Drink Pink

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Vintners Reserve

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Frozen Tundra Red

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Frontenac Limited Edition

2014

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Brianna Breeze

NV

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette Limited Edition

2014

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Barn Quilt Red

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Frontenac Rosso

2016

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette Limited Edition

2016

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette

NV

Petoskey Farms Vineyard and Winery

Petoskey

MI

Frontenac

2015

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

La Crescent

2017

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Marquette

2015

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Marquette 2016 Satek Winery Freemont IN

15th Anniversary Signature Red

2017

Schadé  Vineyard & Winery

Volga

SD

Frontenac

2016

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

La Crescent

2017

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Iapetus Subduction

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Harvest Widow's Revenge

2017

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Frontenac

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

St. Therese Rosa

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Reserve

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Brianna

NV

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Leon Millot

NV

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Edelweiss

2017

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

La Crescent

2016

The Cape Winery

Cape Vincent

NY

Marquette Corse

2017

The Cape Winery

Cape Vincent

NY

La Crescent Sparkling Wine

2016

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Aronia Berry Dessert Wine

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Master's Cuvee` Blanc

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Three Oak Wines LaCrescent

2016

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Between the Buoys

2017

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

North Arm Noir

2016

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

Marechal Foch

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Sabrevois

2016

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Mountain View Red

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

1761 Walpole Rose'

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Frontenac Rose

2017

WILD MOUNTAIN WINERY

Taylors Falls

MN

Frontenac Gris

2017

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Lakeside Red

Non Vintage

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Deer Garden Red

2017

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Horny Heifer

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Rhubarb Crisp

 

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Winne Wonka

2015

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Blackberry Blossom

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Prairie Sunburst Red

2017

Wollersheim Winery

Prairie du Sac

WI

Publish Date: 
Thursday, August 16, 2018 - 9:45am

Pages

Registration is now open for the 9th Annual International Cold Climate Wine competition. Click on the logo to learn more.

ICCWC

Winter is Minnesota can be one of the most challenging times for the grape plants.  It's the main reason V. vinifera varieties aren't grown here.  Learn a little bit about whats going on in the vineyard in winter.

Wine making is a rewarding career, but is not free from headaches. A wine maker's nightmare is the re-fermentation of sweet wines and the instability of some wines. This blog entry addresses the topic and offers some strategies to avoid and mitigate a potential devastating re-ferment.

 

Are you curious if your wine is finished with malolactic fermenation? Here is a quick reminder on how to test with paper chromatography

chromatograph

 

 

 

ALERT: September 27, 2016. Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in Grapes: A short memorandom on SWD in Minnesota and associated volatile acidity. Read more here

Fall vineyard managment should focus on managing insects, vertebrate pests, rots, and diseases that will impact the vines in the next growing season.  Making quality wines requires disease intervention and sorting, as infected fruit will impact wine quality. Read more here.

 

International Cold Climate Wine Competition 2016 Results here!

Northern Grapes Project Webinar Registration

“From Vine to Glass: Understanding the Flavors and Aromas of Cold-Hardy Grapes and Wine”
Tuesday, May 17th*, 2016
12:00 Noon Eastern (11:00 am Central)
7:00 pm Eastern (6:00 pm Central)
*Please note this is a date change from the original date of May 10th.

Join Anne Fennell of South Dakota State University, Adrian Hegeman of the University of Minnesota and Somchai Rice of Iowa State University as they discuss their research conducted on Marquette and Frontenac as part of the Northern Grapes Project. 

Mock Winery Inspection

Friday April 29, 2016

 

Savor Minnesota

This Saturday April 16, 2016

 

Itasca Grape Vine Named

The University of Minnesota releases its news wine varieity 'Itasca' on April 4, 2016

 

Intergeneric Grafting

Experimenting with different grafting techniques including grafting Ampelopsis with a hybrid rootstock.

Preliminary Bud Survival Data

Early bud chop counts on cold-hardy cultivars at the HRC

 

Old blog entries

Are you looking for previous blog posts? Search the archived entries