July 23, 2014

Posts Comments

Grape Disease Management – NGP Update

NGP Logo Provisional

News You Can Use – Grape Disease Management

Every experienced grape grower knows that good disease management program is a crucial component of growing high-quality grapes. Early season control is especially important, as flowers and small berries are quite susceptible to powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot.

Because cold-hardy grape cultivars are still relatively new, we’re still learning about the different cultivars’ resistance and susceptibility to the range of grape pathogens. Therefore, one of the objectives of the Northern Grapes Project is to evaluate disease resistance and the cultivars’ susceptibility to copper- and sulfur-based fungicides.

Below is a list of resources that will help you build an effective disease management program.

Grape Disease Management Basics (and All About Anthracnose) by Wayne Wilcox, Cornell University and Patty McManus, the University of Wisconsin. April 10, 2012 Northern Grapes Project webinar.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Bc5vdsjbI0&feature=youtu.be

The Disease Management Puzzle: Putting the Pieces Together by Dean Volenberg, University of Wisconsin Extension – Door County. June 4, 2013 Northern Grapes News (Vol. 2, Issue 2).
http://northerngrapesproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/May-2014-DiseaseMgmtVolenberg.pdf

Grape Disease Control, 2013 by Wayne Wilcox, Cornell University.

A rather lengthy document that contains an update and review of how to control grape fungal diseases in the east.

http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/grape/pdfs/Wilcox-Grape%20Disease%20Control%202013.pdf 

The 2014 Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide. Contains general guidelines to use as you
develop your grape spray program. Also has information about fruit grower newsletters, pesticide drift,
plant diagnostic lab listings, and much more.
https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/Hort/Documents/ID-169.pdf

 

This article published by the Northern Grapes Project under the series, “news you can use”

The original PDF is here: May 2014 News You Can Use Disease management

“What Yeast Should I Use?”

The title of this post is one of the most common questions asked by winemakers working with cold-hardy grape cultivars. It is a simple question, but one that doesn’t have an easy answer. I have written on this topic in the past, so let me just throw out something that you probably haven’t heard yet: your yeast choice probably isn’t going to make or break your finished wine. There. I said it. I diminished the importance of yeast choice. To be fair, yeast selection does have an impact on the characteristics of your wine. Poor-quality fruit can be enhanced by choosing the correct yeast, and high-quality fruit can lose some of its potential by choosing the “wrong” yeast. The argument being made here is that your yeast choice isn’t going to make the difference between a wine that is worthy of a gold-medal, and one that is worthy of being poured down the drain.

Frontenac Gris lined up for sensory evaluation

Frontenac Gris in Wine Preference Study

When yeast choice REALLY matters, it’s when the environment in which the yeast will live (the  juice, and eventually fermenting wine) is inhospitable. Very acidic (pH < 3.2) or very high sugar juice are stressful to yeast, as are very hot or very cold temperatures. Certain strains of yeast are more tolerant than others of these harsh conditions. If for example, you harvest Marquette at 25.5 °Brix and hope to make a dry wine, you’d better make sure that the yeast is tolerant to alcohol levels greater than 15%. Making a late harvest or ice wine? You need a yeast with high osmo-tolerence to handle the high sugar environment.  If you plan on using bacteria to convert the malic acid to lactic acid, you’d better make sure that the yeast is compatible with Malolactic Fermentation (MLF). Do you have a cooling system in your winery? If not, then you probably should pick yeast that can tolerate hotter temperatures. If you plan on cold-fermenting the wine (to guard fruity aromas), the yeast should be tolerant of cold temperatures. All of these planning questions help to eliminate the outright poor yeast choices, then you can get into some of the nitty-gritty details.

Sensory effect of yeast choice. After eliminating yeast strains that won’t work with your juice chemistry and fermentation goals, the main concern is the sensory effect of the yeast strain. In general, cultivated yeast strains will produce low amounts of off-aromas (H2S and VA) when given sufficient nutrients. Some yeast can affect the mouthfeel of a wine by producing higher amounts of glycerol. There are yeast strains that produce high amounts of tutti-frutti ester aromas – great for young wines, but for high-end wines that are going to age a year or more before release, there isn’t much of a point in using these strains. Esters are extremely volatile, and are the first aromas to disappear – sometimes within a few hours of opening the bottle! Other yeasts will enhance the aroma by releasing some of the aroma precursors found in the grapes at harvest. This is all well-and-good, but in the end the yeast can’t do much unless the precursors for these aromas are in the grapes themselves. This is where the big question lies with cold-hardy grapes. For the most part, we know very little about the nature of their inherent aromas. We know that La Crescent is related to Muscat, and has some of the same floral and perfume aromas that are found in all Muscats. We know that it does contain high quantities of monoterpenes, the class of aroma compounds that have these flowery characteristics. However, we also know that Marquette contains significant quantities of monoterpenes, although it is rare to see floral descriptors used when tasting Marquette wines.  Frontenac contains  methoxypyrazines when unripe (similar to the green pepper aroma in Cabernet Sauvignon) and minty aromas (methyl salicylate and menthol).[1] As we learn more about the impact aromas of these grape cultivars, it may affect our decisions for yeast selection. You can read about why these particular yeast strains were chosen for this trial in a previous post.

Yeast trial with cold-hardy grapes. Last year, we decided to ferment the four University of Minnesota grape cultivars with various commercial yeast strains. This was a trial that was sponsored by the Northern Grapes Project, and was replicated at Cornell University with fruit from Vermont and New York. Over the past few weeks, I asked a group of 27 people who all have experience tasting regional wine to participate in a wine sensory panel. The panel consisted of 16 men and 11 women, whose ages ranged from 26 to 74 with a median age of 50. They were served three wines from each of the four grape varieties and asked to rank them from their most preferred to their least preferred. The only difference in the three wines was the type of yeast that was used for fermentation, which is highlighted in the chart below.

Frontenac Frontenac Gris Marquette La Crescent
ICV – GRE Lalvin – DV10 ICV – GRE Lalvin – DV10
Lalvin – Rhône 4600® Anchor – Vin13 ICV – D254® Vitilevure – Elixir
ICV – Opale® Anchor – NT 116 Levuline – BRG Cross Evolution®

The panelists were also asked to write comments on each of the wines. Not surprisingly, many of the tasters noted differences between the wines. On several occasions, it was noted that one of the wines was “far superior” to the two others in the flight, with notes such as “most complex” and “most interesting” written in the comments section. I even had one panelist who stated afterwards (when he found out what the trial had entailed) how he is always surprised by how much yeast choice can “make or break” a wine. In the end, we were testing whether there was a difference in preference for these different wines in order to give recommendations to winemakers. So which of the three yeasts for each grape cultivar were preferred by our tasting panel?

Drum roll please….

For each wine flight, the judges scored the wines in order of preference, with 1=most preferred, and 3=least preferred in the flight. We tallied the total points for each wine and the results are in the charts below. A lower score indicates a higher overall preference (more #1 ranks) by the judges. Statistical analysis was done using the Basker Critical Values for Rank Sum.

Sensory Panel

The small letter next to the sum indicated whether the difference seen is statistically significant (p < 0.05). If there is the same letter next to the sum, then there is no statistical difference in the observed count. As you can see, for every single yeast trial, no clear difference in preference was shown for one yeast over another yeast in this particular trial.  We may be able to say that for La Crescent, there is a trend towards a preference for yeasts that release monoterpenes (both Cross Evolution® and Elixir enhance floral characters in aromatic whites), but we would need to recruit a larger panel to see if this holds true.  However, at this point, there isn’t a clear preference for those yeasts over a more neutral yeast (DV10).

We chose the yeasts for this trial based on their ability to work well within the chemistry limitations of our varieties.  The subtle differences in these wines that may have been observed by individual panelists didn’t translate into a difference in preference for one wine over another for the group as a whole. This is just to highlight why yeast choice probably isn’t as critical as one might think. In the end, it’s a decision that a winemaker makes based on his or her own personal preference and wine-style goals. This is part of the art of making wine. In the  future, we hope to also do descriptive analysis of these wines, to see if these differences can be appreciated by a panel of consumers. Descriptive analysis will also help guide winemakers towards understanding how yeast choice may affect the sensory characters of their wine.

Grape Cultivar – Yeast Used in Trial

Rank Sum*

Frontenac – ICV GRE

49 a

Frontenac – ICV OPALE®

50 a

Frontenac – Rhône 4600®

56 a

*For Frontenac we could only used the scores from 26 panelists due to an error on one score card

Grape Cultivar – Yeast Used in Trial

Rank Sum

Marquette – ICV GRE

54 a

Marquette – D254®

54 a

Marquette – ICV BRG

54 a

 

Grape Cultivar – Yeast Used in Trial

Rank Sum

La Crescent – DV10

63 a

La Crescent – Elixir

52 a

La Crescent – Cross Evolution®

47 a

 

Grape Cultivar – Yeast Used in Trial

Rank Sum

Frontenac Gris – DV10

55 a

Frontenac Gris – NT 116

52 a

Frontenac Gris – Vin 13

55 a

 


[1] Pedneault, K. (November, 2012). Canada: Maturity and Quality of Some Hardy Grape Varieties Grown in Quebec. International Conference Neubrandenburg and Vitinord. Neubrandenburg/Szczecin.

 

 

Biological Reduction of Total Acidity

A balanced wine should be the goal of every winemaker – not only in the wine’s chemistry, but in the wine’s aroma and flavor. While the latter is often up to interpretation (heavy-handed oak treatment is an example), much is known about how taste components such as acidity, sweetness, and alcohol can work together in harmony or discord on the palate. Cold-hardy wine grapes developed at the University of Minnesota are rarely harvested with a total acidity (TA) under 10 g/L. It is not uncommon to see total acidity at harvest of 15-18 g/L in Frontenac, and even the newest cultivar, Marquette, sees total acidity ranging from 9-13 g/L.

In dry wine production, wine balance can be a trickier dance, as sweetness can help soften both acidity and alcohol. In technical terms, any wine with less than 5 g/L (0.5%) of residual sugar may be considered dry if the yeast population dies. The perception of dryness, on the other hand, can vary based on other aspects of the wine, such as acidity, dry extract, and aroma. A wine that is dry and acidic can taste harsh, astringent, and un-balanced to the consumer. Because tannin and alcohol can accentuate the sensation of acidity, winemakers using cold-hardy cultivars to make dry red wines must consider ways to mitigate this high acidity.

There are three general methods one can use to lower high acidity dry wine production: physical methods (blending and amelioration), chemical methods (bicarbonates), and biological methods (yeast and bacteria). For the acid levels seen in Northern vineyards, the best approach is most likely a combination of all three of these methods. The Northern Grapes Project will be exploring these methods individually, so that winemakers can have a host of different tools in their arsenal for reducing acidity in their own wines.

Biological Deacidification. The most important thing to remember about biological deacidification is that it only affects the malic acid portion of your wine’s total acidity. The most common method of biological deacidification is through malolactic fermentation. Although not a true fermentation, bacteria that exist naturally in the environment have the ability to consume the malic acid in grapes and convert it to lactic acid, softening the wine’s acidity. Nearly all red wines around the world undergo MLF and some white wines also benefit from acid reduction of this practice. Traditionally, red wines are stored in barrels following alcoholic fermentation, where MLF will naturally occur as long as the wines are left unprotected from microbial spoilage. Wineries choosing to allow “spontaneous” MLF to occur often have to wait months for the malic acid to be consumed. The risks involved with leaving the wine un-sulfured, as well as the development of reliable bacteria starter cultures have pushed many wineries to inoculate their wines rather than waiting for MLF to occur naturally.

Yeast also have the capability to consume malic acid (malate), though they convert it to ethanol rather than lactic acid. It has long been known that certain yeasts (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis) are especially efficient at consuming malic acid. However, because these yeasts have poor alcohol tolerance, they must always be used in conjunction with Saccharomyces yeasts in order to complete fermentation in wine. While  S. pombe has been available commercially for some time for use in wine production, the development of other non-Saccharomyces yeasts for commercial use is a hot topic at the moment. We will likely see more of these yeasts available in an active-dry form to use in sequential yeast inoculations for wine.

Until then, we decided to look at some of the commercially available Saccharomyces yeast strains that have a reported ability to reduce malic acid, and trialed them with cold-hardy grape cultivars. After consulting with several enological product suppliers, we came up with a list of several different yeast strains: Lalvin C (Lallemand), Exotics (Anchor), Lalvin ICV OPALE (Lallemand), and Uvaferm VRB (Lallemand). We also trialed a non-Saccharomyces yeast that Lallemand has made available in an active dry form for sequential inoculations: Torulaspora Delbrueckii (sold commercially as Level 2TD). Although its malate-consumption hadn’t been verified, a technician at Lallemand had recommended it because they had observed some softening of the acidity in wines that had been fermented using it.

Yeast deacidification trial. We did a small trial with these yeasts in which we used juice from the 2012 vintage that had been previously frozen. For each MN cultivar, we trialed three different yeast strains, and used a fourth yeast strain as a control. One lot of juice was divided into 20 micro-vinification lots of 500 mL each. Thus each yeast was replicated in 5 fermentation lots. For this initial trial, we were concerned with monitoring mainly the chemistry change using each yeast. For white wines we used Lalvin DV10 as control, and for red wines we used ICV GRE as a control yeast. Both are considered reliable fermenters with no reported malate degradation.  The unusually hot weather in 2012 caused initial brix levels to be extremely elevated, so initial malate numbers reflect juice that had been diluted to bring the sugar concentration down to 25° Brix.

NanoVinification

Results: With Frontenac Gris, we started with an ameliorated juice that had a total acidity of 9.92 g/L, pH of 3.00, and 5.1 g/L of malic acid. Although all the added yeast strains showed some reduction from the initial malate levels in the juice, the acid reduction seen in the Lalvin C, Exotics, and the combination of Torulaspora delbrueckii with Exotics all were significantly lower than the control yeast (p <0.05). We used Lalvin C in a larger lot following this trial in order to evaluate the sensory impacts of this yeast. It’s worth noting that in all 10 micro-vinifications in which Exotics was used, the wines exhibited some stuck fermentations. Thus, some care may be needed when using this yeast in order to complete fermentation in low pH juices.

 

microvin FGRIS

 The La Crescent juice that we divided up for the micro-vinification trials was ameliorated to 25 Brix, which left the starting malate levels at 5.3 g/L. The decrease in malic acid during fermentation was less pronounced than what we saw with the Frontenac Gris fermentation. In fact, only the vinification lots in which Exotics was used showed a statistically significant drop in malic acid (p< 0.05). ICV Opale is advertised to lower malate levels by 0.1 to 0.4 g/L. Our trials show that it exceeded this level in high malate juice, however, this decrease was not significantly lower than our control yeast which has no reported malate reducing properties.

 

microvin LC

Our Frontenac was pressed and fermented as a rosé. Again, it was necessary to ameliorate to reduce the high sugars that we achieved in 2012, however, the initial malate concentration of the juice was still relatively high at 4.6 g/L. All yeast used for this trial caused a decrease in the final malic acid concentration of the wine. All observed differences in malate reduction were statistically significant (p<0.05), except for the two lots that were fermented with Lalvin C. There is no statistical difference between the observed malate reduction when using Lalvin C in conjunction with T. delbrueckii yeast. This (along with the other results seen when using T. delbrueckii) suggests that any impact on the perception of acidity due to this yeast is likely not related to malate degradation. All the Frontenac fermentations finished dry with no stuck or sluggish characters.

microvin frontenac

 Marquette was also pressed immediately and fermented as a rosé. The ameliorated juice had an initial malic acid concentration of 4.1 g/L. Exotics and VRB showed identical malate reduction capabilities, and even though the difference between these two yeasts and the control (ICV GRE) was only slight, the difference is statistically significant (p=0.046). Once again, Lalvin C proved to have the greatest potential for malate reduction, with a 1.10 g/L decrease in malic acid concentration from the juice.

microvin Marq

It is important to keep in mind that there are many different tools available to a winemaker to manage high acidity in their wines. The selection of yeasts that we looked at here are only a small example of what is available on the market. It is important to talk with technicians who supply your winery in order to get a better idea of what products might help with managing your acidity.

 

 

 

Yeast Selection Trials for Cold-Hardy Grapes*

One of the questions winemakers in northern climates ask most often is what yeast strains are recommended for fermenting various cold-hardy grape cultivars. While I understand why this question is asked – most catalogs selling yeast don’t list ‘Marquette’ or ‘Frontenac’ as recommended cultivars for a particular strain – it is also difficult to give a recommendation based on grape cultivar alone. Variables such as growing conditions of the grapes, winemaking conditions in the cellar, and stylistic goals are all important factors in determining what yeast should be used for making a certain wine. Vintage variation (especially in northern climates) can mean that a certain outcome with a commercial yeast strain one year doesn’t necessarily mean that we will have the same outcome the following year. Yeast can’t enhance the spicy character of Marquette, for example, if the aroma compound(s) responsible for that character aren’t in the grapes when they are harvested. Complicating matters is the fact that we are just beginning to learn what aromatic compounds might be involved in varietal aroma for these grapes!

Development of new yeasts.  Before a new commercial yeast strain is released, it undergoes extensive fermentation trials, from lab-scale to commercial scale and with various grape cultivars, to understand its impact on the wine. These trials require a great deal of costly research in order to be certain that the yeast activity will be fully understood once it is released. Unfortunately, the costs of this research guarantees that more obscure grape cultivars are not typically used in these trials. You are about as likely to see yeast recommendations for Picpoul or Vermentino as you are Marquette or Frontenac Gris. Fortunately, with the assistance of the Northern Grapes Project, researchers in the Midwest and Eastern US will be able to perform small-scale yeast trials this year for our cold-hardy grape cultivars.

Yeast trials.  While we may already have some ideas of how certain yeasts behave with cold-hardy varieties, we have yet to perform a study that includes statistical analysis of sensory data in replicated wine trials. This will allow us to evaluate whether a certain aroma or flavor can be attributed to a difference in yeast, grape cultivar or to the growing conditions. Although we do not fully understand the key aromatic compounds involved in the varietal aroma of cold hardy wines, we are able to build on knowledge gained from studies of of wine aroma and yeast metabolism to make educated yeast and cultivar matches. After several years of trials, we will be able to give confident recommendations for yeast strains to winemakers desiring a certain style wine from their cold-hardy grapes.

Grape aroma vs. Wine aroma.  Wine primary aroma compounds, which are also described as the varietal aroma of grapes, are the key aroma compounds that are used to distinguish wines made from one grape cultivar over another. In the grape berry, they are present in both volatile and non-volatile forms. The term ‘volatile’ simply refers to the fact that these compounds can be found in the headspace above the wine in a glass. In other words, this is what you smell when you stick your nose in a wine glass. Some volatile or ‘free’ aromas that are present in the grape berry are also present in the wines. When this occurs, drinking a wine made from that cultivar may remind you of how the grapes tasted when you picked them ripe off the vine.

However, the grape berries are also full of bound aroma compounds that can’t be tasted when you eat a grape, but are transformed into their free form by the action of yeasts, bacteria, and enzymes over the course of vinification. These bound compounds are often present in much higher quantities than the free volatile compounds, and are also considered an important component of the varietal aroma of wine. This is one of the reasons why the aroma and flavor of a wine is much more complex than the juice from which it was made. Yeast can play a key role in liberating these bound aromatic compounds so that they can contribute to the overall bouquet of a finished wine.[i] Thus, using a compatible yeast when vinifying a certain grape cultivar can help to enhance the varietal aroma of the wine. Some of the most important primary aromas that scientists have identified in grapes, and which yeast play a role in releasing during winemaking, are thiols and monoterpenes.

Thiols.  Volatile thiols are one of the most potent groups of compounds found in wine. Some can impart a negative aroma, while others contribute positively to a wine’s bouquet. They are almost non-existent in grape juice, and tend to only develop during fermentation. In Sauvignon Blanc, they are responsible for the box tree, passion fruit, grapefruit, and guava aromas that give the wine its varietal character. However, they have also been identified in wines made from other grape varieties such as Colombard, Merlot, Riesling, Semillon, and Cabernet Sauvignon. In grape juice, researchers have been able to identify the thiols in their bound form, also called an aroma precursor. Because of this, they have been able to understand the biochemical processes that yeast use to break apart the glycoside bonds with the thiols. Although all yeasts are capable of cleaving these bonds, certain strains of yeast have been shown to be better at it than others. Just as human metabolism varies according to a person’s genetics, so does yeast’s. Those that can efficiently release thiols are typically marketed as yeast that will enhance the varietal aroma of Sauvignon Blanc. This year we will be trialing two strains of yeast that are known thiol-releasers to see how they effect the overall aroma wines made from Frontenac gris. We suspect that perhaps some of the tropical fruit aromas found in wines made from this cultivar could be due to thiols.

Monoterpenes.  The second class of primary aroma compounds released by yeast are monoterpenes. Often simply referred to as terpenes, they are potent aromatic compounds found throughout the plant world. In grapes, they are found in large quantities in aromatic varieties like Gewurztraminer, Muscat and Riesling. Monoterpenes such as geraniol and linalool are often used as a fragrance in everything from soaps to air fresheners due to their rose or rose-like aromas. Other terpenes (cintronellol and nerol) can smell like citrus or lemongrass. Unlike thiols, monoterpenes often exist in a free, or volatile, form that can be detected in the grapes themselves. Nonetheless, a significant portion of monoterpenes found in grapes exist in a non-volatile, bound form. Yeast, bacteria, and enzymes in the grapes themselves are all capable of cleaving glycoside bonds and enhancing the varietal aroma of a wine. Knowing that La Crescent heady floral aromas are similar to a Muscat or Gewurztraminer, one can suspect that monoterpenes play a role in its varietal aroma. Using a commercial yeast strain that is a good terpene releaser can help intensify the primary aromas found in the grape. For our trials with La Crescent this year, we are using two yeast strains intended for aromatic white wine production, but are especially interested in yeast that will help with terpene expression. Vitilevure Elixir and Cross Evolution are two yeasts that we hope will show off the varietal attributes of La Crescent.

Enhancing spicy aromas. Spicy aromas exist in many different grape cultivars, however the chemical basis of these aromas isn’t completely understood. Although the compound responsible for black pepper aromas in Syrah and other cultivars has recently been discovered, researchers are still trying to identify if there is a biological method (yeast) of expressing it in wines.[ii] Nontheless, through sensory analysis of wines fermented with different yeast strains, we know that some are better able to enhance spicy characters than others.We aren’t certain what aromatic compound(s) is(are) involved in that spicy character, but we know that it exists. We know that sometimes Marquette wines can have a spicy character, even though we don’t know what causes it Thus,we will be trialing two yeasts that are known to enhance spice in two different cultivars. The strain D254 has been used in Rhone varietals, whereas the strain BRG has been used successfully in Burgundian varietals to enhance spicy characters. We are hoping that both can be used with success to enhance the varietal aroma of Marquette.

Yeast-derived aroma and flavors.  While we are looking for certain yeasts that may help to express the varietal aroma of cold-climate grapes, yeast also produce a number of aromatic compounds as a by-product of fermentation that will affect overall wine bouquet. Of course, the most important job of yeast is the production of alcohol from sugar. The presence of ethanol is essential to enhance the other sensory attributes of a wine. However, excessive ethanol can mask the aroma and flavors in a wine and give the wine an overall impression of “hotness” that is undesirable. While there are many important yeast by-products that contribute to the overall aroma and flavor of wines (fusel alcohols, glycerol, sulfides, volatile phenols, succinic acid, acetic acid…), perhaps the most important aromatic compound to consider when selecting a commercial yeast strain is its ability to synthesize esters. The esters produced by yeast will contribute to the fruity and floral aroma of a wine. These compounds can have aromas ranging from pear drops to flowers, honey, and bananas. Often they are used in the food industry to give artificial fruit flavors to candies.

Esters characterize young wine aroma.  While ester producing yeast strains aren’t typically associated with enhancing the varietal aroma of a wine, it has been shown that their production can be influenced by grape variety. For example, in Pinot Noir wines, the characteristic fruity aromas of plum, cherry, strawberry, raspberry, blackcurrant and blackberry characters were shown to be influenced by esters. These esters are synthesized by the yeast, but from aroma precursors found in the grape berry.[iii] Nonetheless, these compounds are some of the first to disappear during wine aging. The fruity and banana aromas that you smell in the winery during fermentation are typically associated with esters which disappear quickly in finished wine.. Mixed yeast cultures containing non-Saccharomyces yeast can also have a positive impact on the production of esters in wine. If a winemaker wishes to guard these aromas in a wine, they should be sure to ferment the wine cold and limit oxygen uptake. Ester-producing yeast strains should typically be used only if the wines are meant to be bottled and consumed while they are still young. In years where poor growing conditions (rot or botrytis) make it difficult to get fruity aromas from the grapes themselves, esters from yeasts may help make up for lack of varietal character. There is also some market demand for wines with this fruity aromatic profile. We will be using two high-ester producing yeasts in trials with Frontenac this year: Rhone 4600 and ICV Opale.

Selecting a yeast.  Think of yeast as one tool in your toolkit to help direct a wine to what you want it to be. The first step a winemaker needs to take when deciding what yeast to use is to determine the stylistic goal he or she has in mind for a wine. Is it going to be fresh and fruity with some residual sugar, or will the wine undergo a significant aging period in new oak and made into a dry wine? Perhaps you are making wines in both those styles. You probably wouldn’t want to use the same yeast for both of those wines. A wine that is meant to be fresh, young, and fruity should probably be fermented with yeast that will add some fruity esters to the wine. However, if you put that wine into a barrel, those ester aromas will quickly disappear due to their high volatility. You are better off trying to get the most fruit flavor out of the grapes themselves by using yeast that enhances varietal character.

Vineyard environment.  Sometimes the stylistic goal the winemaker has in mind may not even be possible depending on growing conditions of the grapes. In a warm year, if the Brix is greater than 25, yeast that only tolerate 14% alcohol should not be used (assuming you want a dry wine). We battle with high acidity in all our wines, but growers in the most extreme growing regions of the north may have to face the fact that their grapes may have too much acid to ever turn them into a palatable dry wine. This may also be true in short growing seasons where it is difficult to get the acid numbers down prior to harvest. Sometimes trying to force a wine to be something that it is not is a sure way to end up with a mediocre wine. It is important to remain realistic and understand that no matter how hard you try, you probably will never be able to make a “big” Bordeaux-style wine from Marquette or Frontenac.

Winemaking environment.  Winemaking conditions are also important. While Saccharomyces yeast tolerate  the harsh conditions in grape juice and wine, each strain has their own special range of ideal conditions for growth. The yeast cell wall is made up of fatty acids in a lipid bilayer. Think of it as a layer of oil. Just as some fats react differently to extreme temperature changes, so does this lipid bilayer surrounding the yeast cell. Really cold temperatures can make it stiff and hard to move, while really hot temperatures make it thin and runny. The yeast cell wall  is also sensitive to alcohol and osmotic pressure. The cell wall needs to transport nutrients into the cell and export waste products out of the cell, and both can make it difficult for the yeast to do so. The sugar concentration of the  juice ormust can make it difficult for the cell to get rid of waste, as it’s pushing against the osmotic pressure of the solution against its cell wall. A buildup of waste inside the cell will lead to cell death. Also, each strain of yeast varies in how efficiently it uses nutrients. Although all winemakers should be checking the YAN levels of their juice or must, this becomes even more important when using a yeast strain that has higher nutrient needs.

In the end, selection of a commercial yeast strain can have a significant impact on your finished wine.  Yeast can play an important role in ensuring that a fermentation finishes clean and dry with a predictable outcome to a wine, which is crucial to successfully marketing cold-hardy cultivars.

*This article was published in the Nothern Grapes Project newsletter on August 17th, 2012


[i] A. Zalacain, J. Marín, G.L. Alonso, M.R. Salinas. 15 March 2007. Analysis of wine primary aroma compounds by stir bar sorptive extraction, Talanta 71:4, 1610-1615

[ii] Logan, Gerard. University of Auckland, New Zealand. 5 August 2012. Personal communication

[iii] Moio, L. and Etievant, P.X. (1995) Ethyl anthranilate, ethyl cinnamate, 2,3-dihydrocinnamate, and methyl anthranilate – 4 important odorants identified in Pinot Noir wines of Burgundy. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 46, 392-398


 

Northern Grapes Webinars!

 

 

Announcing….

The Northern Grapes Webinar Series

Presented live the 2nd Tuesday of each month

 

12:00 Noon Eastern (11:00 AM Central)
7:00 PM Eastern (6:00 PM Central)
Presentations will be recorded and archived for later review.

This series of monthly, one-hour webinars will cover special topics on growing, producing, and marketing wines made
from cold-hardy Northern winegrape cultivars. Webinars will feature speakers from the Northeast and Midwest sharing
their expertise and recent research on topics essential to cold-climate growers, winemakers, and winery owners.

The webinar format will allow you to view the program over the internet, ask questions, and interact with the speakers
from the privacy of your home desktop (Some bandwidth requirements apply). The series will begin with:

Managing Acidity in the Winery

January 10, 2012

12:00 Noon Eastern (11:00 AM Central)
7:00 PM Eastern (6:00 PM Central)

Cold-hardy cultivars such as Frontenac, St. Croix, La Crescent and Marquette are known for retaining acidity at ripeness, and managing it in the winery can present challenges for winemakers. Dr. Murli Dharmadhikari, Enologist and Director of the Midwest Grape and Wine Industry Institute at Iowa State University, and Dr. Anna Katharine Mansfield, assistant professor of enology at Cornell University, will discuss chemical and biological methods for reducing acidity in wines made from Northern cultivars. Dr Tim Martinson, director of the Northern Grapes Project, will provide an orientation to the webinar series, and a brief overview of the USDA-funded Northern Grapes Project.

To Register: Registration is free, but required. To attend, please fill out the online registration form posted at:

https://cornell.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5pEmyXKrP6YODn6

One week before the webinar, those who register will be sent the web address (URL) for the Adobe Connect session.

PLEASE NOTE: Only those who have completed the online registration form will receive connection details to
participate in the webinar.

For those who are unable to register or view the live feed, I will be hosting a group viewing at the Horticulture Research Center in Excelsior, MN. (the address is: 600 Arboretum Blvd.) Viewing will be at 11:00.

Next Webinar: February 14, 2012. Nuts and Bolts of Canopy Management, with Michael White (Iowa State) and Tim
Martinson (Cornell).

 
 
 
 
 
The Northern Grapes Project is funded by the USDA’s Specialty Crops Research Initiative
Program of the National Institute for Food and Agriculture, Project #2011-51181-30850