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Spotted Wing gDrosophila (SWD) Alert for Wine Grapes

Recent rains have caused berry splitting for grape growers around Minnesota, leading to spotted wing Drosophila infestations. Insecticide applications are warranted to prevent damaging affects on wine quality, and must be done at least one day prior to harvest.

Bill Hutchison, Dominique Ebbenga, and Matt Clark
UMN Entomology, UMN MN Extension IPM Program, UMN Horticulture

With the wine grape harvest upon us, and a recent increase in Spotted Wing Drosophilla (SWD) counts, via our weekly trapping network, growers should be aware of the potential contamination of juice or wine, if berries are exposed to SWD just prior to harvest.  The concern with late-season SWD in grapes is two-fold, including a) the potential for direct contamination of fruit/juice via egg-lay and larval infestations, and b) the surface exposure of adults and/or larvae contributing to increased levels of volatile acidity (VA) at either the juice stage or during fermentation --- which is responsible for a vinegar taint to the wine. 

Regarding the risk of direct berry infestation, our 2017 research, via a graduate student (Dominique Ebbenga), we found that with intact (non-damaged) berries, the vast majority of MN grown varieties were resistant to egg-lay. Among 34 varieties tested, only 2 commercial varieties (Swenson red, Vanessa) experienced egg-lay and larval infections. However, the complication this year with recent heavy rainfall, is that excess splitting is underway with several varieties, and splitting allows SWD to easily lay eggs and generate larval infestations.

Regarding concerns with VA, Ebbenga's research found statistically significant, and higher levels of VA in Frontenac, Marquette and La Crescent juice, following exposure to 20 SWD adults (vs zero adults) for 10-14 days prior to harvest. For more information on VA, and how this contributes to a vinegar taint, see the enclosed fact sheet from Penn State. This study is being repeated this year, and will be extended to assess VA levels in wine as well. 

In brief, in preparation for this year's harvest, if growers are in an area where trap catches, or adult numbers are high, or have their own traps to confirm, and one or more varieties are splitting, an insecticide application prior to harvest is warranted. Unfortunately, there are few options available with a short pre-harvest interval (PHI). Mustang Maxx is the primary pyrethroid product to consider, with a 1-day PHI and 12 hr re-entry interval; this is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP), and the label should be reviewed. In other words, growers must wait at least one day after applying Mustang Maxx before harvesting.

For recent SWD counts at selected TC-metro locations, see: https://www.fruitedge.umn.edu/swdtrap

Click here for additional SWD management information and labelled insecticides via our UMN guide.

Publish Date: 
Monday, September 10, 2018 - 3:45pm

2018 Open House 9/8/2018

Join in celebrating the fall grape harvest with an open house hosted by the University of Minnesota Grape Breeding and Enology project.  

This annual event is a great time to meet other grape growers and enthusiasts. You get to taste about 50 different grape varieties and learn about research being conducted on enology, viticulture, and grape genetics.

This year will also feature Dr. Bob Guthrie, a world expert on Kiwi (Actinidia). Dr. Guthrie will provide attendees an opportunity to taste kiwi berries and talk about research related to this unique cold-hardy crop.

The open house will be from 10 am - noon on Saturday, September 8, 2018 at the Horticultural Research Center, 600 Arboretum Blvd., Chaska, MN 55318.  Professor Carl Rosen discusses plant nutrition in cold hardy grapes

Publish Date: 
Tuesday, September 4, 2018 - 4:15pm

2018 ICCWC 10th Anniversary Winners Announced

10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition

For Immediate Release: 8/18/2018

Press Contact: Matt Clark clark776@umn.edu or 612-626-5142

Trophy and Medal Winners for the 10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition

Twenty-four judges from around the nation met today at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in Chaska to judge cold-climate wines. This is the only competition of its kind that focuses on wines made with cold hardy grapes, fruit, or mead. The competition seeks to honor and promote wines of exceptional quality produced in these unique cold-climate regions. The competition is a partnership between the University of Minnesota Grape Breeding and Enology Project and the Minnesota Grape Growers Association. Many wonderful industry sponsors also support the event. 

Over 340 wines were entered from 66 wineries. These wineries were from 16 states and 2 Canadian provinces, a true international competition.

Six trophies are awarded to the top wines and wineries in the competition, in addition to medallions. The top awards include Best-of-Show from each competition category, Winery of the Year, and the prestigious Minnesota Governor’s Cup. Winery of the year is awarded based on a weighted medal count. The Minnesota Governor’s Cup is chosen from gold and double gold award-wining wines that are produced in Minnesota. The selection is made from the entire 24 judge panel. This year’s judging panel included sommeliers, wine consultants, wine importers, wine makers, enologists, biochemists, and wine writers.

Trophies

Minnesota Governor’s Cup

La Crescent (2017) Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

**Awarded for the second year in a row**

Winery of the Year

Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN

 

Best of Show Rosé

White Marquette (2017) Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN

 

Best of Show White

La Crescent (2017) Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

 

Best of Show Red

“Marquessa” Reserve Marquette (2016) Chateau St. Croix, St. Croix Falls, WI

 

Best of Show Specialty

“Firelight” (2017) Lincoln Peak Vineyard, New Haven, VT

Medals

Double Gold

 

Frontenac Gris

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

La Crescent Ice Wine

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Walpole Fort. No.3

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

 

Gold (25 Medals)

White Marquette

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Reserve Frontenac

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Reserve Marquette

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Petite Colline

2017

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Marquessa

2016

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Indulgence

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Ballet

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

M

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Radiance

2017

door peninsula winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Outstanding Red Reserve

2017

Eagles Landing Winery

marquette

IA

Autumn Blush

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Rhubarb Raspberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

M Series

2016

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Aphrogrisiac

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Amelia

NV

Galena Cellars Vineyard & Winery

Galena

IL

Firelight

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Minnesota Ice Wine

2015

next chapter winery

new prague

MN

Marquette

2017

Niobrara Valley Vineyards

Nenzel

NE

Sabrevois

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

La Crescent

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Ice Wine

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Saint Croix Vineyards Port

2011

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Foch Dessert Wine

2016

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

LaCrescent

2017

Whitewater Wines

Plainview

MN

Strawberry-Rhubarb Wine

NV

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

 

Silver (85 Medals)

Brianna Edelweiss

NV

 Firehouse Wine Cellars

Rapid City

SD

Tradition

NV

 Firehouse Wine Cellars

Rapid City

SD

Marquette

2016

12 Corners Vineyards

Benton Harbor

MI

Frontenac Gris

2017

7 Vines Vineyard

DELLWOOD

MN

Brianna

2017

Backcountry Winery

Stratford

IA

Marquette

2017

Backcountry Winery

Stratford

IA

300-Russian Barrel Marquette

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Minnescato

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Petit Ami

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

2 Hearts 2 Souls

2017

Cellar 426 Winery

Ashland

NE

DewDrop Limited Edition No. 2

NV

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Frontenac Rose

2016

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Ruby Port

NV

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Pink Snowflake

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewaunee

WI

Frontenac

 

Crow River Winery

Hutchinson

MN

Charleston

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Hula

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Conga

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

White Velvet

2017

Danzinger Vineyards

ALMA

WI

F2

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

M

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Black currant honey grape wine

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Marquette

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Honey & Berries

 

Eagles Landing Winery

Marquette

IA

Marchal Foch

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Frontenac Rose

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

La Crescent

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Blueberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Rhubarb Bluberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Headwaters Classic Red

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Polygon Rose

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Eric the Red

2017

Galena Cellars Vineyard & Winery

Galena

IL

2016 Frontenac Gris

2016

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

North Branch

2016

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

Hawk Meadow La Crescent

2017

Hawk Meadow Winery

Hastings

MN

Demi Sec Rosa

2014

Illinois Sparkling Co.

Peru

IL

Frontenac Rose

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Marquette

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Ragtime White

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

What The Foch

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Mein Onkel

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Salier

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Minnesota Crisp

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Strawberry Wine

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Stark Red

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Brianna

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Frontenac Blanc

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Geez Louise

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Carls Wild Grape

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

44 Red

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Club Rouge

2017

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Marquette Rose

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Good Red

2016

Pioneer Estates Winery

Moncton

New Brunswick

Marquette

2017

Potter Settlement Artisan Winery

Tweed

Ontario

Marquette Rose

2017

Richwood Winery

Callaway

MN

Whimsy

2017

Satek Winery

Fremont

IN

Sparkling Rose

2017

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Blossom

2017

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Laketown White

NV

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Laketown Red

NV

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

Petite Pearl

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Marquette Reserve

2015

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Marquette

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Frotenac Gris

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette Reserve

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Ignatius

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

none

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Brianna

2016

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

White Blossom

NV

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

Candleglow White

NV

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

Master's Cuvee`

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Four Point Oh!

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Three Oak Wine Frontenac Gris

2016

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Three Oak Wines Frontenac Rose

2017

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Frontenac Blanc

2017

Three Oak Wine

Albert Lea

MN

Marquette

2017

Tongue River Winery

Miles City

MT

La Crescent

2017

Tongue River Winery

Miles City

MT

Randall's Point Red

2017

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

Monarch Haven

2016

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Stinger Mead

NV

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Grapewinds Port

Non  Vintage

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Marquette Reserve

2016

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Cranberry Crush

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Bronze (93 Medals)

Prairie Star

2017

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

300-Triumph

2016

Carlos Creek Winery

Alexandria

MN

Sunflower White

2017

Cellar 426 Winery

Ashland

NE

Marquette

2016

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

La Crescent

2017

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Lone Oak Tree Vineyard Marquette Reserve

2016

Chankaska Creek Ranch & Winery

Kasota

MN

Chateau Rouge

NV

Chateau St. Croix

St. Croix Falls

MN

Marquette

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Frontenac Gris Ice Wine

2016

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewaunee

WI

Heavenly

2017

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Frontenac

2016

Cold Country Vines & Wines

Kewuanee

WI

Sashay

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Marquessa

2015

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Cha Cha

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Calypso

2017

Dancing Dragonfly Winery

St Croix Falls

WI

Cresent Moon

2016

Danzinger Vineyards

Alma

WI

Marquette

2016

Danzinger Vineyards

Alma

WI

Red Door

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Washington Island Rose

2016

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Sparkler

2017

Door 44 Winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Soiree

2017

door peninsula winery

Sturgeon Bay

WI

Honey Grape Wine

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Pearly Duck

2017

Duck Creek Vineyard and Winery

Denmark

WI

Frontenac

2017

Flower Valley Vineyard

Woodbury

MN

Aronia Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Raspberry Wine

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

Cassis Pomme Reserve

NV

Forestedge Winery

Laporte

MN

La Crescent

2017

Four Daughters Vineyard and Winery

Spring Valley

MN

Brianna

2016

Grape Mill Vineyard & Winery

East Grand Forks

MN

Huntsville Red

2016

Grape Mill Vineyard & Winery

East Grand Forks

MN

2015 Marquette

2015

Grovedale Winery

Wyalusing

PA

LaCrescent

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Village Marquette

2016

Indian Island Winery

Janesville

MN

Black Sparrow

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

LaCrescent

2017

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Ragtime White

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Limestone

2016

Lincoln Peak Vineyard

New Haven

VT

Freizeit

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Draga

2014

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Little Iza

2017

Millner Heritage Vineyard & Winery

Dassel

MN

Plum Crazy

2015

Montgomery Harvest Cider and Wine

Montgomery

MN

Sweet Pea

2017

Niobrara Valley Vineyards

Nenzel

NE

Blackberry Wine

 

North Folk Winery

Harris

MN

Aurora Red

2017

Northern Hollow Winery

Foley

MN

Rivertown Red

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Prairie Rose

 

Northern Vineyards Winery

Stillwater

MN

Lacrescent

2017

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Drink Pink

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Vintners Reserve

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Frozen Tundra Red

2016

Parallel 44 Vineyard & Winery

Kewauneee

WI

Frontenac Limited Edition

2014

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Brianna Breeze

NV

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette Limited Edition

2014

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Barn Quilt Red

2017

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Frontenac Rosso

2016

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette Limited Edition

2016

Parley Lake Winery

Waconia

MN

Marquette

NV

Petoskey Farms Vineyard and Winery

Petoskey

MI

Frontenac

2015

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

La Crescent

2017

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Marquette

2015

Saint Croix Vineyards

Stillwater

MN

Marquette 2016 Satek Winery Freemont IN

15th Anniversary Signature Red

2017

Schadé  Vineyard & Winery

Volga

SD

Frontenac

2016

Schram Vineyards

Waconia

MN

La Crescent

2017

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Iapetus Subduction

2016

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Harvest Widow's Revenge

2017

SHELBURNE VINEYARD

Shelburne

VT

Frontenac

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

St. Therese Rosa

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Marquette

2016

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Reserve

2015

Sovereign Estate

Waconia

MN

Brianna

NV

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Leon Millot

NV

Spirits of Norway Vineyard

Franksville

WI

Edelweiss

2017

Tassel Ridge Winery

Leighton

IA

La Crescent

2016

The Cape Winery

Cape Vincent

NY

Marquette Corse

2017

The Cape Winery

Cape Vincent

NY

La Crescent Sparkling Wine

2016

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Aronia Berry Dessert Wine

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Master's Cuvee` Blanc

2017

The Winery At Kirkwood

Cedar Rapids

IA

Three Oak Wines LaCrescent

2016

Three Oak Vineyards & Winery llc

Albert Lea

MN

Between the Buoys

2017

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

North Arm Noir

2016

Walloon Lake Winery

Petoskey

MI

Marechal Foch

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Sabrevois

2016

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Mountain View Red

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

1761 Walpole Rose'

2015

Walpole Mtn View Winery at Barnett Hill Vineyard

Walpole

NH

Frontenac Rose

2017

WILD MOUNTAIN WINERY

Taylors Falls

MN

Frontenac Gris

2017

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Lakeside Red

Non Vintage

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Deer Garden Red

2017

Winehaven Winery and Vineyard

Chisago City

MN

Horny Heifer

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Rhubarb Crisp

 

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Winne Wonka

2015

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Blackberry Blossom

2017

Winneshiek Wildberry Winery

Decorah

IA

Prairie Sunburst Red

2017

Wollersheim Winery

Prairie du Sac

WI

Publish Date: 
Thursday, August 16, 2018 - 9:45am

10 Anniversary ICCWC: Trophy Winners Announced

10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition Results are coming in. 24 judges from around the nation met today at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in Chaska to judge cold-climate wines. The only competition of its kind that focuses on wines made with cold hardy grapes, fruit, or mead. Over 340 wines were entered from 66 wineries. These wineries were from 16 states and 2 Canadian provinces, a true international competition. The full medal list will be presented on 8/16/2018, but the top trophy winners have been notified! These winners include:

Governor’s Cup

(Best Minnesota Wine of the competition scored by 24 judges)

Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

La Crescent 2017

Winery of the Year 

(Top winery in the competition based on earning medals for up to 5 wines)
 
Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN
 

Best of show wines must first earn a gold medal from a 3-judge panel, and then are advanced to a second round with a 6-judge panel for the following categories.

Best of Show Rosé

Carlos Creek Winery, Alexandria, MN

White Marquette 2017

Best of Show White

Northern Hollow Winery, Foley, MN

La Crescent 2017

Best of Show Red

Chateau St. Croix, St. Croix Falls, WI

“Marquessa”

Reserve Marquette 2015

Best of Show Specialty

Lincoln Peak Vineyard, New Haven, VT

“Firelight” 2017

LaCrescent and Frontenac Gris

Publish Date: 
Wednesday, August 15, 2018 - 5:15pm

10 Anniversary ICCWC

10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition

We are just a few short weeks away before the 10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition begins. Thanks to all of our sponsors.  Just a few reminders of important deadlines and getting your wines to the competition in time.

All entries must be post-marked or delivered in-person by 4:30 on August 8, 2018. Registration has been extended, and entries must be made online no later than  August 7, 2018 at midnight.

If you are in Minnesota or surrounding area you can bring your wines to the Horticultural Research Center (600 Arboretum Blvd, Excelsior, MN 55331).

Or

Bring your wines to the MGGA summer picnic in Grasston, MN

 

Publish Date: 
Friday, July 27, 2018 - 11:15am

Diagnose Vine Problems with the UMN Plant Disease Clinic

Annie Klodd, Extension Educator – Fruit and Vegetable Production

Examining mild symptoms of blackleaf. Photo: Annie Klodd

When growers spot issues in their vines, the cause of the problem is not always obvious. But knowing the cause is the first step in resolving it – so what should you do?

Did you know that the University of Minnesota has a Plant Disease Clinic that can help you diagnose diseases in your vineyard? The Plant Disease Clinic, staffed by expert plant pathologists, analyzes samples submitted by growers in order to identify suspected problems.

Click here and go to "Episode 6" to listen to PDC staff and Extension Educators talk about how the PDC works!

Sending a sample in for expert diagnosis can save growers significant money by making sure they are applying the appropriate treatments to their vines, and identifying problems before they get too severe and expensive to treat.

How Does This Work?

When PDC pathologists receive a sample from a grower, they have multiple tricks up their sleeve to nail down the problem. They not only look at the visible symptoms on the sample, but they can also use microscopic analysis, tissue culture, nematode testing, virus testing, and DNA and RNA-based analyses as needed to reach the diagnosis.

Many of the more common diseases can be identified with the “routine diagnosis,” which includes traditional symptom analysis, microscopic examination and serological tests when applicable. For more difficult samples, the clinic may recommend they move forward with the additional testing techniques above, as appropriate. Fees differ according to the complexity of the tests performed.

Submitting a Sample

The quality of the sample you submit plays a big part in how successful the diagnosis will be. Here are several tips to getting the most out of your sample submission:

  1. Your sample to the plant disease clinic must include living tissue where the symptoms of the infection are currently appearing.
  2. In addition, include adjacent healthy tissue for comparison. For example: If you are experiencing cluster dieback every year, submit the cluster while it is currently demonstrating necrosis, along with adjacent stem, leaves, and ideally a couple of nearby clusters as well.
  3. If you suspect that you may have a trunk disease, such as Botryosphaeria that we have been discussing, the PDC may need to culture the tissue to isolate the disease. However, woody tissue can be more challenging to isolate fungal disease spores from. Be sure to send in living tissue where you can clearly see the symptoms. You can submit multiple pieces, as well.
  4. Pack the sample into a plastic bag, not paper. The sample will dry out in a paper bag and make diagnosis difficult.
  5. Mail the bagged sample in a shipping box, and include this form.
  6. On the submission form, the more information you can write about the problem, infection tendencies, vineyard site and history, past diseases and management, and your current management program, the better.
  7. If you suspect certain diseases based on history or conversations with Extension, it is a good idea to list that on the form in the "Problem” box so the lab can look for them.
  8. If you are not sure which tests to request, please contact the PDC first, to make sure you are ordering the most appropriate analysis for your situation.

To ship the sample in a box, include the sample in a plastic bag, the completed form, and a check for the analysis fee. The routine analysis is $45. Tissue culture can be added onto the routine analysis for an extra $14, but tissue culture is not always necessary for diagnosis. Refer to the PDC website for more information on services, sample submission, and fees: https://pdc.umn.edu

The mailing address for the Plant Disease Clinic is as follows:
Plant Disease Clinic
Department of Plant Pathology
495 Borlaug Hall
1991 Upper Buford Circle
St. Paul, MN 55108

You can reach the PDC with questions at pdc@umn.edu.

Publish Date: 
Tuesday, July 10, 2018 - 9:30am

Statement on Botryosphaeria in Minnesota Grapevines

Authors: Annie Klodd, Matt Clark, and Mike White. With input from John Thull, Jenny Thull, Mizuho Nita, and Tim Martinson. 

During Dr. Richard Smart’s visit to the Horticultural Research Center on Monday, he discussed the common trunk disease botryosphaeria (“Bot canker”) and demonstrated it in several native and cultivated vines here. This fungal disease enters the vine through pruning cuts and injury, and gradually spreads through the vine over a number of years if not managed. It appears as brown streaks and cankers on the inside of woody tissue (xylem) (see photo).

Botrytosphaeria "bot canker" in a grapevine trunk

Signs of the disease are not visible in the current year’s growth. Additional pathological testing is required to determine which fungal organism(s) are present and causing symptoms as there are numerous Botryosphaeria species and other trunk diseases like Phomoposis and Eutypa that can have similar symptoms. This includes the classic wedge-like canker in mature vines.

Impact on Minnesota Vines 

Two important things to emphasize: 1) This trunk disease is not reason to panic, and grape growers around the world have been coexisting with it for many years. It is manageable, and does not warrant pulling out productive vines or cancelling orders. Energy should instead be focused on management. 2) It is unknown what percentage of vines Bot canker is present in, or what varieties are most susceptible. Research will be needed to determine the causal relationship between the presence of Bot canker and vine decline, including winter injury.

Bot canker is manageable through good sanitation after pruning, cordon replacement, and proper site selection. Bot that is not managed will eventually cause reduced yields, trunk die-back, and a shorter lifespan. These symptoms look similar to winter injury, and the two factors may be combining to lead to vine decline.

Botryosphaeria is common throughout the world, and grape industries in California, France, Italy, New Zealand, and others have successfully coexisted with it for quite some time. Now that we have a heightened awareness of this disease in Minnesota, we are able to improve our management practices in order to minimize its impact on our beautiful Minnesota vineyards.

Recommendations

Dr. Mizuho Nita is the grape pathologist at Virginia Tech who has been researching Botryosphaeria biology and management for many years. He is an authority on the subject. Here are some take-aways from a conversation with him this week:

1) Botryosphaeria is present in the air. It mainly enters vines through pruning wounds that are made when the air is humid, like after a rain. 
2) He recommends pruning during dry conditions, and then spraying Rally or Topsin-M  (fungicides) on the vines once the temperatures warm above freezing but before it rains.
3) Growers should grow up suckers to replace trunks and cordons if die-back occurs.
4) It infects the vine gradually over the course of 10-20 years. If vines are not stressed and they are managed well, they are often able to produce for years before showing decline. 
5) Vine decline due to Botryosphaeria is typically observed on older vines; it can exist in the vines for a long time without causing damage. The two times Dr. Nita has seen decline on 3-4 year old vines were instances when they were pruned right before a rain, in the shade. Those are classic examples of disease conditions.
6) If the vines experience winter injury, the Bot infection may get worse because the vine is less healthy and therefore less able to tolerate infection. 

When growers see vine decline in Minnesota, such as dead spurs, cordons,or trunks, this may be a combination of factors including Botryosphaeria, winter injury, management, and wet conditions. If you suspect Bot canker in your vineyard, the only way to truly confirm it is through lab analysis. Send a sample to the UMN Plant Diagnostic Lab, with a note that you suspect Botryosphaeria. Then if it is confirmed, follow the above recommendations about training up new suckers and replacing cordons as needed. Practice preventative measures including spraying Rally and Thompson after pruning (once temperatures are above freezing), and removing pruning debris  from the field. Do not prune in wet conditions.

In addition, make sure that vines are grown in ways that minimize stress: Prune to the recommended spur counts for the variety, plant cold-hardy and disease-resistant varieties, and plant in well-drained sites (avoid planting in wetland and low-lying flat areas).

Stay tuned for further information. This is a new disease problem that has been brought to our awareness. Awareness is the first step in solving a problem.  Further research and experience will shed more light on dealing with this disease in our cold climate region. 

Please contact us with questions or if would like to discuss recommendations. Extension Educator Annie Klodd can be reached at kloddann@umn.edu.

Publish Date: 
Friday, June 29, 2018 - 3:45pm

10th Anniversary ICCWC

10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine CompetitionRegistration is now open for the 10th Anniversary International Cold Climate Wine Competition. To submit your wines for the competition, click here!

Publish Date: 
Saturday, June 2, 2018 - 10:45am

VitiNord2018 Registration is Open!

VitiNord2018 will be hosted in the beautiful cities of Malmö/Alnarp – Copenhagen/Frederiksberg

July 30 through August 3, 2018

For the first time, an international conference will bring together growers and wine makers from the Scandinavian countries, Europe and North America. The Oresund bridge makes possible this conference in Sweden and, just across the Oresund, in Denmark.

Learn more about VitiNord2018 and register for this event at http://www.vitinord2018.org/ 

Publish Date: 
Wednesday, May 30, 2018 - 7:15am

Minnesota Grape Production Statistics 2017

Minnesota Grape Production Statistics 2017

Estimates for the yield, production, and pricing data of the minnesota grape industry

In early 2018, commercial grape growers in Minnesota provided University of Minnesota Extension with yield and pricing data for their 2017 harvest. Using an online survey instrument, growers reported on their planted and producing acres, and the yields, sales, and prices received for each cold-hardy grape variety. Additionally, growers reported on the causes and amount of crop loss experienced. Survey findings are summarized in the attached report.

Publish Date: 
Wednesday, May 23, 2018 - 11:00am

Pages

Registration is now open for the 9th Annual International Cold Climate Wine competition. Click on the logo to learn more.

ICCWC

Winter is Minnesota can be one of the most challenging times for the grape plants.  It's the main reason V. vinifera varieties aren't grown here.  Learn a little bit about whats going on in the vineyard in winter.

Wine making is a rewarding career, but is not free from headaches. A wine maker's nightmare is the re-fermentation of sweet wines and the instability of some wines. This blog entry addresses the topic and offers some strategies to avoid and mitigate a potential devastating re-ferment.

 

Are you curious if your wine is finished with malolactic fermenation? Here is a quick reminder on how to test with paper chromatography

chromatograph

 

 

 

ALERT: September 27, 2016. Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in Grapes: A short memorandom on SWD in Minnesota and associated volatile acidity. Read more here

Fall vineyard managment should focus on managing insects, vertebrate pests, rots, and diseases that will impact the vines in the next growing season.  Making quality wines requires disease intervention and sorting, as infected fruit will impact wine quality. Read more here.

 

International Cold Climate Wine Competition 2016 Results here!

Northern Grapes Project Webinar Registration

“From Vine to Glass: Understanding the Flavors and Aromas of Cold-Hardy Grapes and Wine”
Tuesday, May 17th*, 2016
12:00 Noon Eastern (11:00 am Central)
7:00 pm Eastern (6:00 pm Central)
*Please note this is a date change from the original date of May 10th.

Join Anne Fennell of South Dakota State University, Adrian Hegeman of the University of Minnesota and Somchai Rice of Iowa State University as they discuss their research conducted on Marquette and Frontenac as part of the Northern Grapes Project. 

Mock Winery Inspection

Friday April 29, 2016

 

Savor Minnesota

This Saturday April 16, 2016

 

Itasca Grape Vine Named

The University of Minnesota releases its news wine varieity 'Itasca' on April 4, 2016

 

Intergeneric Grafting

Experimenting with different grafting techniques including grafting Ampelopsis with a hybrid rootstock.

Preliminary Bud Survival Data

Early bud chop counts on cold-hardy cultivars at the HRC

 

Old blog entries

Are you looking for previous blog posts? Search the archived entries